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Bavaria

 

Contents

Flags

historical Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

unofficial historical Flags

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Cockade

regional Flags
    – Franconia

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
Flag of the country,
with stripes




Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
Flag of the country,
with lozenges



Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria Ministerpräsident Premier
Flag of the Premier and the Vice-Premier,
Standard for cars




Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria Staatsminister Staatssekretär Minister
Flag for State Ministers and Secretaries of State,
Standard for cars
Source by: Wikipedia (D)



Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria Staatsminister Staatssekretär Minister
Flag for the Plenipotentiary of the State of Bavaria to the Federation,
for the President of the Constitutional Court,
for the President of the Supreme Fiscal Court,
Standard for cars



Source: by Verwaltungsanordnung über die bayerischen Staatsflaggen

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historical Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Bayern König Bavaria King
1806–1835,
Flag of the King of Bavaria,
Source: by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Bayern König Bavaria King
1835–1918,
Flag of the King of Bavaria,
Source: by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
ca. 1813,
Flag of the national field bataillons,
Source: by: Brigade-Uniformtafel Nr. 102



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The colours of Bavaria are white and blue. They correspond to the colours of the former Bavarian sovereign lineage of Wittelsbach. In the constitution of the country from the 2nd of December in 1946 became white and blue confirmed as colours of the country.

The Bavarian flag was officially first and always the white-blue lozenged flag. However, in the in practice stripe-flags were used, even in the military, and especially from the era of Napoleon, where striped national or state flags became popular. But the striped flag with two equally wide horizontal stripes in white and blue was not formally introduced until the 11th of Sepmtember in 1878. The lozenge-flag has compulsory 21 diamonds and begins in the upper corner with a white lozenge.

The lozenges are descended from the heraldry of the Counts of Bogen and are known since 1204. In the year 1242 they were given to the Wittelsbachers. In the year 1953 became the striped flag and the lozenged flag designated as state flags. There are none special official flag. Reproduction with coats of arms on the flags are not official.

Another incident for the flag was the seizure of power by the National Socialists in the German Empire in 1933. All official non-swastika flags, that refered to federalism, regional references or the old German Empire were abolished between 1933 and 1935. For the National Socialists, the federal structure of the German Empire, its historically grown countries, was considered as outdated, as relics of a past to be overcome. In this sense, several laws were enacted, on 31st of March in 1933 the 'Provisional Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire', on 7th of April 1933 the 'Second Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire' and finally, on 30th January in 1934 the 'Law on the rebuilding of the empire'. Thus, the federal structure of the German Empire was replaced by the gau-structure of the NSDAP, the countries became meaningless. From now on, offices and authorities had to use the swastika flag as official flag, until September 15th in 1935, when by the flag-law was legislated a new created official flag for all the offices and authorities of the empire. The prime ministers of the countries, which latest in 1933 all came from the NSDAP – now mostly called Reichsstatthalter (maybe translated as 'governor') – however remained in office until 1945. The corresponding country colours continued, with restrictions, but definitly not in the form of flags. They were used, for example, occasionally on uniforms of the SA or in some ranks of the Hitler Youth in the breast cord.

After the war, the administration within the German Empire was rebuilt, but locally, following the structure of the countries. These have been partly old countries, and some new countries were created. Sometimes they bethought the old country colours and reactivated them – or they created new ones – for limited sovereign duties, which were under the control of the Allies. With the founding of the FRG and the GDR, an internal country-structure was finalised for both entities and corresponding official flags were introduced for these countries.

For Bavaria are officially approved two shades of blue: dark blue CMYK 100-60-0-0, light blue CMYK 100-15-0-0. On this website are – just to express the difference – the current flags are coloured in dark blue, and the historical flags in light blue.

Source: World Statesmen, Discovery '97, Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt, Uniform-Fibel

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unofficial historical Flags

The here shown flags are historically handed down, perhaps because they appeared in paintings and had been mentioned in descriptions, but they were never officially. Bavaria used officially (officially defined) always the lozenge-flag, and from 1878 the flag with two horizontal stripes in white and blue.


Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
18th. century,
Source: by: World Statesmen



Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
1820–1848,
Source: by: World Statesmen



Flagge Fahne flag Bayern Bavaria
1848–1878,
Source: by: World Statesmen



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Coat of Arms


Wappen Herzogtum Bayern coat of arms Duchy Bavaria
13th cent. – 14th cent.,
Blazon of the Duchy of Bavaria

Wappen Herzogtum Bayern coat of arms Duchy Bavaria
14th cent. – 1623,
Blazon of the Duchy of Bavaria

Wappen Kurfürstentum Bayern coat of arms Electorate Bavaria
1623–1805,
Blazon of the Electorate of Bavaria

Wappen Königreich Bayern coat of arms Kingdom Bavaria
1806–1835,
Blazon of the Kingdom of Bavaria

Wappen Königreich Bayern coat of arms Kingdom Bavaria
1835–1918,
Blazon of the Kingdom of Bavaria

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
1918–1923,
Blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
1923–1950,
Blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
since 1950,
lesser coat of arms

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
since 1950,
greater coat of arms

Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
since 1950,
Blazon of the Free State of Bavaria

Landessymbol Wappen Freistaat Bayern coat of arms Free State Bavaria
since 1987,
Symbol of the Free State of Bavaria,
Source: by: www.stmi.bayern.de

Landessymbol Wappen Franken symbol coat of arms Franconia
since 1987,
Symbol of Franconia,
Source: by: www.stmi.bayern.de

Source: by Heraldique Europeenne, Wikipedia (D), www.stmi.bayern.de, Volker Preuß

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Die Landesfarben von Bayern sind Weiß und Blau. Sie entsprechen den Farben des ehemaligen bayerischen Das Wappen des Königreichs Bayern ist viergeteilt mit einem Herzschild in der Mitte. Das erste Feld zeigt einen goldenen Löwen mit roter Krone auf Schwarz, und steht für die Pfalz. Das zweite Feld ist Weiß und Rot im Zickzackschnitt geteilt ("fränkischer Rechen" genannt), und steht für Franken. Das dritte Feld zeigt zwei rot-weiße Pfähle, dazwischen ein goldenens Feld. Es steht für die Markgrafschaft Burgau. Das vierte Feld zeigt einen blauen Löwen mit goldener Krone auf weißem Grund. Dies ist der Veldenzer Löwe. Er kennzeichnet die zuletzt herrschende Linie der Wittelsbacher, und verweist auf die fromstammung der königlichen Familie von einem mittelrheinischen Dynastengeschlecht. Der Herzschild in der Mitte zeigt die blau-weißen Rauten. Als Schildhalter dienen to heute zwei bayerische Löwen, wenn sie auch nach 1919 ihre Kronen hfromen fromgeben müssen.

Das Wappen des Freistaates Bayern wurde 1923 entworfen. Der Herzschild mit den Rauten wurde entfernt, und die Rauten wurden in das erste Feld des viergeteilten Wappenschildes platziert. Der pfälzische Löwe wechselte so vom ersten Feld in das zweite, der fränkische Rechen wechselt vom zweiten Feld in das dritte, der Veldenzer Löwe wurde ganz entfernt, und anstelle der Pfähle der Markgrafschaft Burgau erscheinen nun die Hohenstaufischen schwarzen Löwen (Schwfromen) auf goldenem Grund. Eine Krone bedeckt die ganze Schildobersincee und nennt sich "Volkskrone".

Das heutige bayerische Staatswappen ist durch das "Gesetz über das Wappen des Freistaates Bayern" von 1950 festgelegt. Es gibt nur ein Kleines Staatswappen (Rautenschild mit Volkskrone) und ein Großes Staatswappen (vierfach geteilter Schild mit Herzschild und Volkskrone). Das Große Staatswappen wird immer von zwei Löwen als Schildhalter begleitet und zeigt since 1923 die "Volkskrone".

Der heutige Wappenschild ähnelt wieder mehr dem königlichen Wappen von vor 1919, denn der Herzschild mit den Rauten taucht wieder auf, und Feld 1 (Pfalz, obwohl 1945 fromgetreten, steht nunmehr für die Oberpfalz) und 2 (Franken) stimmen überein. In das dritte Feld wurden die Hohenstaufischen Löwen (Schwfromen) aufgenommen. Im vierten Feld ein blauer "Löwe" auf Silber, der eigentlich keiner ist. Es ist kein Löwe und kein Panther, sondern ein "Pantier", ein Ffromelwesen, eine Art Drache, welches im Maul keine rote Zunge sondern eine rote Flamme zeigt. Der Pantier wird oft "Sponheimer Löwe" genannt. Er geht auf das Herrschergeschlecht derer von Sponheim zurück und taucht unter anderem im Wappen von Ingolstadt auf. Der "Sponheimer Löwe" ging im Jahre 1260 an die Wittelsbacher über. Im heutigen bayerischen Wappen steht er für Ober- und Niederbayern (Altbayern).

Source: Volker Preuß, Stephan Gorski

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Cockade


Kokarde cockade Bayern Bavaria
to 1919, Cockade of Bavaria,
Source: by: www.altearmee.de

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read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Cockade cockade
  Cockade

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Map

FRG and its countries, clickable map:

Source: Volker Preuß

Today's Bavaria appears on the map in blue, and the yellow border shows the boundaries of the Duchy of Bavaria at the end of the 10th century.

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 27.240 square miles

Inhabitants: 12.560.000 (2011)

Density of Population: 461 inh./sq.mi.

Religions: 55% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 4% Muslim

Capital: Munich, 1.350.000 inh. (2010)

Currency to 1876: 1 Gulden = 60 Kreuzer

Currency 1876–1924: 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig

Currency 1924–1948: 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Currency 1949–2001: 1 Deutsche Mark (DM) = 100 Pfennig (Pf.)

Currency from 2002: 1 Euro (€, EUR) = 100 Cent (Ct.)

Source: Wikipedia (D), Der Michel, Volker Preuß

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History

6th century to 788 · first Duchy of Bavaria

907–937 · renewal of the Duchy of Bavaria

976 · the southeast of the Duchy of Bavaria is separated as Duchy of Carinthia

1070 · the House of the Guelphs (Welfen) gets the title of duke

1180 · Styria is separated from Bavaria as a duchy under the House of the Ottokars

1180 · beginning of the regency of the Wittelsbach Dynasty over the Duchy of Bavaria (to 1918)

1329 · division by heritage (inheritance) into Palatinate and (old) Bavaria

1356 · 'Golden Bull', the Palatinate becomes an electorate

1429–1503 · inheritances followed by divisions

1506 · introduction of primogeniture for the prevention of divisions of inheritances

1620 · Battle at the White Mountain, the Bavarian General Tilly suggests the Protestants and occupies soon after it the Palatinate

1623 · Duke Maximilian I. becomes levied to Elector, Upper Palatinate comes to Bavaria

1776 · the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach Dynasty extincts, the Wittelsbach line of the Palatinate inherits the Electorate of Bavaria

1800 · invasion of French troops under Napoléon

1803 · unification of Bavaria and Palatinate under the Wittelsbach Dynasty (Palatinate line)

1805 · invasion of French troops under Napoléon, the Electorate of Bavaria comes on the side of France

1805 · the Austrian territories of Salzburg, Tyrol become annexed to Bavaria

1st of January 1806 · the Electorate of Bavaria becomes levied to a kingdom by Napoléon

12th of July 1806 · founding of the Rhine Confederation by Napoléon, Bavaria joines the Rhine Confederation and leaves among other members the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation on 1st of August in 1806

1810 · the Austrian Inn-River-Area becomes annexed to Bavaria

1813 · Bavaria turns away from Napoléon, Napoléon defeats at Leipzig in October

1814–1815 · Vienna Congress, reorganization of Europe after the Napoleonic era, Bavaria has to cede back its aqusitions from 1805 and 1810

1815 · Bavaria joines the German Confederation

1866 · Fratricidal War of Prussia against Austria, Bavaria is on the side of Austria and subjects

1871 · Bavaria joines the German Empire, with a special status (special rights for its own mail service, railway and army, and the right for own foreign representatives – they were abolished in 1921, that at the Holy See in 1934)

1918 · overthrow of the monarchy

8th of November 1918 · proclamation of the Free State of Bavaria

1919 · communist coup, civil war

1920 · the Free State of Coburg becomes annexed to Bavaria after a referendum

1934 · the territorial structure of the states of the German Empire becomes replaced by the districts of the NSDAP, the countries become meaningless

1945 · USA occupation zone, separation of Palatinate

1949 · Bavaria becomes a state of the FRG

Source: Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name "Bavaria" is derived from that in earlier times here living tribe of the "Bajuwaren", but also the Celtic tribe of the "Boii" comes into question.

Source: Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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Kindly supported by: Stephan Gorski (D)