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Lübeck

 

Contents

Flag

historical Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Cockade

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flag

Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
since 1941,
Flag of the city,
Source, by: Flags of the World



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historical Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
1280–1937,
Flag of the country (colours of the country),
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck Hanse Hansa
14th, 15th, 16th cent.,
Colours of the Hanse,




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
1670–1839,
Official flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
1839–1850,
Official flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
1850–1890,
Official flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck
1890–1937 Official flag,
1937–1941 Flag of the City,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck Seedienstflagge official flag offshore
1895–1922,
Official flag offshore,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Lübeck Seedienstflagge official flag offshore
1922–1934,
Official flag offshore,
ratio = 3:5,
Source: Wikipedia (D)



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The flag of Luebeck shoes the country's colours red and white, which go back to the old scutcheon of the town. That appears in the breast-shield of the empire's eagle in the newer coat of arms of Luebeck. The eagle, the symbol of the German Empire, remembers Luebeck as "free and empire's town". In 1866 Luebeck joined the North German Federation, which was reflected in the adoption of a naval official flag, which showed the colors of the North German Federation: black and white for Prussia, as well as red and white for the Hanseatic towns.

Another incident for the flag was the seizure of power by the National Socialists in the German Empire in 1933. All official non-swastika flags, that refered to federalism, regional references or the old German Empire were abolished between 1933 and 1935. For the National Socialists, the federal structure of the German Empire, its historically grown countries, was considered as outdated, as relics of a past to be overcome. In this sense, several laws were enacted, on 31st of March in 1933 the 'Provisional Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire', on 7th of April 1933 the 'Second Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire' and finally, on 30th January in 1934 the 'Law on the rebuilding of the empire'. Thus, the federal structure of the German Empire was replaced by the gau-structure of the NSDAP, the countries became meaningless. From now on, offices and authorities had to use the swastika flag as official flag, until September 15th in 1935, when by the flag-law was legislated a new created official flag for all the offices and authorities of the empire. The prime ministers of the countries, which latest in 1933 all came from the NSDAP – now mostly called Reichsstatthalter (maybe translated as 'governor') – however remained in office until 1945. Not so in Lübeck, because the country was dissolved 1937. On 22nd of January in 1941, the current flag was adopted in the city of Lübeck. It shows two horizontal stripes in white and red, and the black eagle in the white stripe on the mast.

Source: Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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Cockade


Kokarde cockade Lübeck
1866/1867–1919,
Cockade of Lübeck,
Source: Jens Hild

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read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Map


Source: Stielers Hand-Atlas, Justus Perthes, 1891

The map shows the Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Luebeck about the year 1890 within an orange colored border. The border of the German Empire is hatched in red, the Prussian in blue, the border of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in yellow, the border of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in brown, and the border of Oldenburg in green.

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 115 square miles

Inhabitants: 106.000 (1905)

Density of Population: 921 inh./sq.mi. (1905)

Capital: Lübeck was a city state

Currency to 1876: 1 Mark Courant = 16 Schillinge = 32 Sechslinge

Currency 1868–1871: 1 Taler = 30 Silbergroschen = 360 Pfg.

Currency 1871–1924: 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig

Currency 1924–1948: 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Source: Wikipedia (D), World Statesmen, Der Michel

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History

about Christ's birth · in the region settle Germanic tribes, possibly Saxons

375 · Hun invasion, the beginning of the Great Transmigration (Hike of Nations), migration of the old Germanic tribes into the Roman Empire, moving up of other Germanic tribes towards the Roman border, the Saxons migrate to England and in the Weser River Region, in the now deserted area (Germania Slavica) immigrate Slavs, into the region around today's Luebeck immigrate from the 7th century Slavs from the tribe of the Obodrites

819 · foundation of Liubice (Old-Luebeck) by the Slavic tribe of the Obodrites

900 · in the East Frankish Kingdom forme out five tribal duchies (Saxony, Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia and Lorraine), the beginning of the eastward expansion into Germania Slavica between the rivers Saale/Elbe and the Oder/Neisse, the Elbe river becomes crossed to the north-east, and about 960 the Baltic Sea and the Oder River are reached, the Obodrites become annexed to the Mark (Margraviate) of Hermann Billung

1093 · Liubice becomes the residence of a Slavic prince

1127 · Liubice is destroyed by the Slavic tribe of the Ranen

1143 · foundation of Luebeck by earl Adolf II. of Holstein

1160 · Luebeck becomes a bishopric and gets granted the city rights

1189 · Luebeck comes to the Duchy of Saxony

1192 · Luebeck comes to Holstein

1201–1225 · under Danish rule

1226 · incorporation of Old-Luebeck (est. ca. 1100)

1226 · levied to an Free Imperial City by emperor Friedrich II.

ca. 1280 · establish of the Hanseatic League

1361· the City of Visby on Gotland, until now the capital of the Hanseatic League, is conquered by the Danish King Waldemar IV., the seat of the Hanseatic League is moved to Luebeck

14th–16th cent. · powerful economical and cultural influence in the Baltic Sea area

1563–1570 · Nordic War (Hanse and Denmark against Sweden), Sweden achieves

1570 · peace of Stettin, the political importance of Luebecks ends

1669 · last Hanse congress in Luebeck

1792, 1796, 1800 and 1805 · invasions of French revolutionary troops under Napoleon in the German Empire, the German Empire subjectes and becomes territorially transformed

1803 · German Mediatisation (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss), transformation of the territorial partition of the German Empire, ecclesiastical possessions become confiscated, old princely territories and free cities become confiscated or dissolved or annexed to old or new principalities, the number of sovereign authorities and territorial entities of the empire is thus reduced from 300 to 60

1806 · occupation by French troops under Napoléon

12th of July in 1806 · Napoleon forces the creation of the Rhine Confederation, an alliance of sixteen southern and southwestern German states under French protectorate

1st of August 1806 · the states of the Rhine Confederation declare themselves sovereign and resign from the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation

6th of August in 1806 · Emperor Franz II. lays down the crown of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the empire ends

1810 · Luebeck is annexed by France

1811 · withdrawal of the French

October 1813 · Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig, the Rhine Confederation begins to fall apart, Napoleon and his troops withdraw behind the Rhine River, restoration of the Free and Hanseatic City of Luebeck

1814–1815 · Congress of Vienna, reconstruction of Europe after the era of Napoleon, the ownership and the administrative partitions in the former German Empire become restored, but not the sovereignty of the ecclesiastical countries, their possessions become transferred to old or new principalities, the 39 remaining German states – in this way Luebeck too – become organized in a loose association, the German Confederation

1866 · German War (civil war), Prussia and its allies against Austria and its allies, Prussia wins, Luebeck is on the side of Prussia, join of the North German Confederation

1st of January in 1868 · selling of the claims in the mutual government of Bergedorf with Hamburg to Hamburg

1868 · joining of the Customs Association

1871 · joining of the German Empire

1933–1934 · Luebeck cedes (like all German states) its exclusive pilitical rights to the government of the empire, the territorial structure of the German Empire countries become replaced by the Gau structure of the NSDAP, the countries become meaningless, finally on 30th January in 1934 by the 'Law on the rebuilding of the empire'

26th of January in 1937 · Greater Hamburg Act, the territory of the City of Hamburg becomes significantly increased at the expense of the Prussian territory, in exchange Prussia annexes the city of Luebeck, the (since 1934 marginal) sovereignty of the city ends, it becomes affiliated to the Gau of Schleswig-Holstein

1949 · the town belongs to Schleswig-Holstein

Source: RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Wikipedia (D), Historisches Deutschland, World Statesmen, Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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Origin of the Country's Name

When Count Adolf II. of Holstein in 1143 founded the City of Lübeck, he named it after the near lying Slavic settlement called Liubice, which was incorporated in 1226 as Old-Luebeck. Liubice comes from the word 'liuback' which means 'graceful'. Luebeck is therefore 'The Gracious'. In later times Luebeck adorned itself with the title "The Queen of the Hanse".

Source: Handbuch der geographischen Namen

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