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Mecklenburg-Strelitz

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Cockade

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Mecklenburg-Strelitz Landesflagge
to 1918,
Flag of the country,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, 6. Auflage 1905–1909




Flagge Fahne flag Mecklenburg-Strelitz Landesfarben
1863–1934,
Colors of the country,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Mecklenburg-Strelitz Landesfarben
Colors of the country,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Brockhaus Konversationslexikon, 1894





Flagge Fahne flag Mecklenburg-Strelitz Großherzog Grand Duke
ca.1897–1918,
Flag of the Grand Duke,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle, World Statesmen



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The Duchy of Mecklenburg became for the first time divided in 1352, between two lines of the dynastic family, that happened again and again, so also in 1621 and at least in 1701. The Dukes – from 1814 Grand Dukes – of the two principalities shared not only their title, they also used the same coat of arms, and the same colours and flags. From 1755 there was even a common "Convening of Ranks" (a sort of parliament) for both principalities.

The flag of Mecklenburg was blue, white and red, which was used to ca. 1870 also with the bull's head, but also played the color combination of blue, yellow and red, a great role, initially only as a military colours. In 1863, blue, yellow and red were then introduced as colours of the country (Landesfarben), they could be used by anyone, even on flags, but there were also official flags introduced in these colours. But some flags remained in blue, white and red, even until 1935. The colours of Mecklenburg, blue, white, yellow and red, have their roots probably in the colours of the coat of arms of the rulers of Mecklenburg, because from the 14th century a quartered shield was used, which showed the various acquisitions made by the Lord of Mecklenburg. Therein occur these colours.

The Brockhaus Encyclopaedia, collective of authors, F.A. Brockhaus in Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna, 14th Edition, 1894-1896, mentioned for Mecklenburg-Strelitz countrie's colours in reversed order, red, yellow and blue.

The Grand Duke had its own flag, and probably used the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz to 1897 the same blue, white and red model as the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. However, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin introduced a new flag for itself in 1897. It appears as a scutcheon-flag and showed the image of the coat of arms with its six fields and the central shield. The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz retained the colours, only the coat of arms in the middle of the flag has been enlarged and was placed on a white rectangular box.

Source: Meyers Konversationslexikon, Brockhaus Konv.-Lexikon, World Statesmen, Flags of the World, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Mecklenburg
14th cent.,
Coat of arms of Mecklenburg,
Source, by: Heraldique Europeenne


Wappen coat of arms Mecklenburg-Strelitz
19th cent. to 1918,
Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
Source, by: HGISG Geoinform


Wappen coat of arms Mecklenburg-Strelitz Freistaat free state
1918–1934,
coat of arms of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
Source, by: Wikimedia.org By Hupp, PNG durch David Liuzzo [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the Lords of Mecklenburg showed originally a griffin, but from 1219 a black head of a bull on a golden background. From the 14th Century, a quartered shield was used, which showed the possessions and acquisitions of the House of Mecklenburg. These heraldic pictograms appeared over the times again and again or became supplemented. Initially these were the bull head on gold for Mecklenburg, a golden griffin on blue (Rostock), a between blue and white splited field, in the upper blue, a golden griffin, the lower a green field (Principality of Schwerin), an oblique bull's head on gold (Werle), a between red and gold splited field, also used as central shield (County of Schwerin). From the 16th century there appeared an arm, holding a gold ring, on red (Stargard), and from the 17th century even a crowned silvery cross on red (Ratzeburg).

Between the lines of Mecklenburg-Guestrow and Mecklenburg-Schwerin there was no difference in the coat of arms, because the dukes of the two principalities shared not only the title, they also used the same coat of arms, and the same colours. This was handled in the same way between Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but nevertheless there are some small differences in the coats of arms: 1.) In the red field of the Principality of Ratzeburg, the crown does not sit directly on the cross, at the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but with a little distance above it. 2.) In the red field of the Lordship of Stargard, the arm does not directly come from the edge of the field, at the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, but first out of a cloud. 3.) In the large coat of arms are placed three crowned helmets above the shield, the middle helmet bears at the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz no ordinary crown but a so-called Wendish crown (more like a hoop) and the piles there looking out have the color sequence of black, red, gold, blue, silver instead of black, gold, red, silver, blue (at Mecklenburg-Schwerin) and the bull's head behind them is not placed on a golden shield, as at Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 4.) In the large coat of arms, the shield-holding bull shows no tongue and the griffin has not raised the tail but down between the legs at the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 5.) The order-chain and the banner appear only in the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 6.) In the large coat of arms, the canopy of the tent of the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Strelitz shows no ornaments. Often it is noticeable in historical representations of the large and middle coats of arms that the two shield holders (supporters), Bull and Griffin, either look inward or both looking outwards. This difference is not important (according to Ströhl), but followed – changing over the times – a particular taste, however, when the shield holders last looking inward (ca. 1895). The golden coat of arms with the bull's head was retained over all times as the lesser coat of arms.

After the monarchy was abolished, Mecklenburg-Strelitz became a free state, and adopted in 1918 a new coat of arms. It was splited and half-divided, it showed to the left in blue a crenellated silvery wall with a pointed roofed crenellated tower (Stargard), upper right on gold a black bull's head with neck fur (Mecklenburg), bottom right on red a silvery cross (Ratzeburg ). Above a "people's crown". When we compare the heraldic pictograms with those from before 1918, it is striking, that crowns are no longer present. In 1934 Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were merged to the Country of Mecklenburg.

Source: Deutsche Wappen Rolle, Heraldique Europeenne, HGISG Geoinform, Volker Preuß

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Cockade


Kokarde cockade Mecklenburg-Strelitz
from 1807,
National (Cockade) of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Kokarde cockade Mecklenburg-Strelitz
to 1919,
Cockade of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

In the Napoleonic period, the cockades of the country showed from 1807 in an oval-shaped cockade (a so-called 'national') the color-combination of blue-red-yellow, but in the year 1919 red-yellow-blue on an round cockade. The authors know nothing more about the coloration and design of the blanket between the end of the Napoleonic era and the end of the monarchy in the year 1918.

Source, by: Jürgen Kaltschmitt, nach
P. Bunde, Brigadeuniformtafel Nr. 96, Herzogenrath 2002

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Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Map


Source: Stielers Hand-Atlas, Justus Perthes, 1891

The map shows the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin und Mecklenburg-Strelitz about the year 1890. The border of the German Empire is hatched in red, the Prussian border in blue, the border of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in yellow, the border of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in brown.

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 1.131 square miles

Inhabitants: 106.000 (1910)

Density of Population: 94 inh./sq.mi. (1910)

Capital: Neustrelitz

Currency 1848–1867: 1 Taler = 48 Schillinge

Currency 1868–1871: 1 Taler = 30 Groschen

Currency 1871–1924: 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig

Currency 1924–1934: 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Source: Wikipedia (D), Der Michel, Volker Preuß

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History

earlyer History of Mecklenburg – click here

1701 · Hamburg Comparison, re-division of the country of Mecklenburg into the Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz

1755 · introduction of a constitution (state's constitutional hereditary comparison) for both parts of the country, which thus form (de jure) a single state until 1918 and with it a common parliament

1792, 1796, 1800 and 1805 · invasions of French revolutionary troops under Napoleon in the German Empire, the German Empire subjectes and becomes territorially transformed

1803 · German Mediatisation (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss), transformation of the territorial partition of the German Empire, ecclesiastical possessions become confiscated, old princely territories and free cities become confiscated or dissolved or annexed to old or new principalities, the number of sovereign authorities and estates of the empire is thus reduced from 300 to 60

12th of July in 1806 · Napoleon forces the creation of the Rhine Confederation, an alliance of sixteen southern and southwestern German states under French protectorate

1st of August 1806 · the states of the Rhine Confederation declare themselves sovereign and resign from the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation

6th of August in 1806 · Emperor Franz II. lays down the crown of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the empire ends

10th of February in 1808 · Mecklenburg-Strelitz joins the Rhine Confederation, the Duke is charged by Napoléon to a Grand Duke

October 1813 · Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig, the Rhine Confederation begins to fall apart, Napoleon and his troops withdraw behind the Rhine River

1814–1815 · Congress of Vienna, reconstruction of Europe after the era of Napoleon, the ownership and the administrative partitions in the former German Empire become restored, but not the sovereignty of the ecclesiastical countries, their possessions become transferred to old or new principalities, the Dukes of Mecklenburg become levied to the rank of a Grand Duke, the 39 remaining German states – in this way Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz too – become organized in a loose association, the German Confederation

1866 · German war (civil war), Prussia and its allies against Austria and its allies, Prussia wins, the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz are on the side of Prussia, both join of the North German Confederation

1871 · Mecklenburg-Strelitz joins the German Empire

1918 · fall of the monarchy

1920 · Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

1st of January in 1934 · unification of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with Mecklenburg-Strelitz to the Country of Mecklenburg

1933–1934 · Mecklenburg cedes (like all German states) its exclusive pilitical rights to the government of the empire, the territorial structure of the German Empire countries become replaced by the Gau structure of the NSDAP, the countries become meaningless, finally on 30th January in 1934 by the 'Law on the rebuilding of the empire'

Source: Wikipedia (D), Atlas zur Geschichte, Discovery '97, Volker Preuß

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name Mecklenburg was first mentioned in a document from the year 995 as 'Mikelenburg'. With this name was meant a Slavic castle with the name 'Wiligrad'. Its name was translated into Low German language. Because 'Wiligrad' means in the language of the Obodrites and in Low German language "big castle" ("miekel" = big). The Lords of the Mikelenburg had been princes out of the tribe of the Obodrites and later they became the chiefs of the whole country and even imperial princes. The ruled until 1918. The epithet 'Strelitz' refers to the residence of the country ruling line, the town Neustrelitz.

Source: Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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