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Saxony-Hildburghausen

 

Contents

Flag ?

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Cockade

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flag ?

The colors of the House Wettin are blue and yellow. They have their roots most likely in the crest of the Dominion of Landsberg. These colors were worn by members of the Swiss Guards at the electoral-saxon courts. The bands of some medals had been blue-yellow too. Black and yellow were for centuries the colours (livery color) of the Saxon courts (Albertine and Ernestine). They have their roots the regular coat of arms (black lion in golden field, which later became the arms of the Margraviate of Meissen) or in the coat of arms of the Duchy of Saxony. Black and yellow were used for certificate cords and for many military ensigns since the 17th century. However, national colors in the true sense, they were not yet.

The former Albertine electorate and new kingdom of Saxony joined the Rhine Confederation on 11th of December in 1806, on 15th of December in 1806 followed by the Ernestine duchies in Thuringia. The troops of the duchies were consolidated and equipped with cockades in black and gold in accordance with the convention of the 13th of February in 1807. The cockades of the Kingdom of Saxony remained white.

When the Saxon King Friedrich August I., of the dynasty of the Albertine Wettins, in May 1815 was returning home from captivity to Saxony after the end of the liberation wars against Napoleon, he instructed Lieutenant General of Lecoq at the 22nd of May in 1815, to reorganize and bring home, the at the River Rhine standing Saxon troops. The there until this point in time still white cockades on the caps of the soldiers were to surround with a green edge by this instruction of the king to avoid confusions with other troops. The news about the creation of the color combination of white and green spread very quickly, and arrived Saxony before the king. So he was received by his people with white and green garlands, flags and ribbons. In recognition of this fact, the monarch decided on 16th of June in 1815 to take over the white-green cockade for national cockade. That was the birth of the white and green as the colors of Saxony. The Saxon duchies (Thuringia), ruled by the Ernestine Wettins took mostly over these arrangements for their colors and flags.

The colours of the German states are (called Landesfarben, are often derived from the colours of the coats of arms, and used as cockades, as well as flags), were formed – especially in the German inland countries – rather late, often after the French Revolution and the following wars of liberation. In the period from ca. 1815 to ca. 1830, this process was finally completed in all German states. Whether this trend has also taken place in Saxony-Hildburghausen, and if it came to a goal until the end of the country in 1826, is so far little explored and unknown.

Source: Volker Preuß, www.sachsenlied.de, Jens Hild

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
1680–1825,
Lesser coat of arms of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: historical illustration


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
to 1735 (?),
Shield of the middle coat of arms of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: historical illustration


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
from 1735 (?),
Shield of the middle coat of arms of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: historical illustration


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
to 1735 (?),
Shield of the greater coat of arms of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: historical illustration


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
from 1735 (?),
Shield of the greater coat of arms of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: historical illustration

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The central element of the heraldry of the Saxon monarchies is the Saxon coat of arms. It was created around 1180 when the Ascanians, margraves of Brandenburg and counts of Ballenstedt became the dukes of Saxony: a green diamond wreath was placed over the black and golden coat of arms of Ballenstedt. In principle, the title of the Duke of Saxony migrated up the Elbe to what is now central Germany, as it was lent to various noble families (last 1423 the Wettins). In 1485 the "Leipzig division" of the Wettin lands took place between the brothers Duke Albrecht (ancestor of the Albertines) and Elector Ernst (ancestor of the Ernestines). The Ernestines divided into many lines, which retained the Saxon heraldry. One of them was Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld. The line experienced a dynastic change in 1826, which was also manifested in the coat of arms. The time before 1826 its heraldry was not much defined and is not so well preserved. There are only some correct colored representations, rather monochrome sketches or coats of arms on coins, which are helpful and to use as a guide.

About the coat of arms: It seems that there are two variants of the greater coat of arms (shield with helmets and crests, mantling). A smaller one, with 13 fields and a larger one with 18 fields, each with the Saxon diamond-wreath-arms as heart shield. This increase could be due to the gain by the legacy of Saxony-Coburg (died out in 1699), which in part came to Saxony-Hildburghausen in 1735.

The middle coat of arms (shield with the most important fields and crown) has been handed down to a larger extent only on coins. The elements of the coat of arms there are only shown stylized. The method of depicting colors in monochrome reproduced coats of arms using fine hatching emerged from the beginning to the middle of the 17th century, but the coins could not be embossed so finely that they could have depicted fine hatching. You have to take the lion as a lion, the eagle as an eagle, without coloring, without a defined background color, so that you do not know what title, property or inheritance is behind it. Perhaps that was also wanted, because one can interpret multiple occupancies of the figure in the coat of arms. The Duchy of Cleve (actually a golden Cleven wheel on red) is clearly recognizable, as is the Saxon shield, which was placed as a heart shield on the quartered coat of arms. The Duchy of Cleve (withe the Cleven wheel) seems to have been replaced by another lion in the middle coat of arms in the middle of the 18th century, if one takes into account the depictions on coins. That could also be related to the legacy of Saxony-Coburg in 1735.

The lesser coat of arms (shield with crown) shows only the between black-gold divided Saxon coat of arms with the diamond wreath. On the crowns in the coats of arms, there does not seem to have been any regulation, often are placed here princely hats or crowns and a duke's crown appears first at the beginning of the 19th century.

Source: Volker Preuß, Deutsche Wappen Rolle, historical illustration


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Cockade


Kokarde cockade Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
to 1807,
Cockade of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: Jens Hild

Kokarde cockade Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Hildburghausen Sachsen Saxony Hildburghausen Saxony-Hildburghausen
1807–1815(?),
Cockade of Saxony-Hildburghausen,
Source, by: Jens Hild

The former Albertine electorate and new kingdom of Saxony joined the Rhine Confederation on 11th of December in 1806, on 15th of December in 1806 followed by the Ernestine duchies in Thuringia. The troops of the duchies were consolidated and equipped with cockades in black and gold in accordance with the convention of the 13th of February in 1807. The cockades of the Kingdom of Saxony remained white. When the Kingdom of Saxony changed its national colors to white and green on 16th of June in 1815, the Saxon duchies in Thuringia, governed by the Ernestine Wettin family, mostly followed this rule for their national colors, flags and cockades. The arrangement of white and green was varied in different ways. Unfortunately, it is not known whether, when and how this was implemented for Saxony-Hildburghausen.

Source: Volker Preuß, Jens Hild, Deutsche Wappen Rolle

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Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Numbers and Facts

Area: ca. 274 square miles (1820)

Inhabitants: 29.700 (1816)

Capital: Hildburghausen, 3.700 inh. (1800)

Currency: Taler, Gulden, Heller, Kreuzer

Source: www.hgisg-ekompendium.ieg-mainz.de

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History

1264 · the Landgraviate of Thuringia (then much larger) was divided after a war of succession, the Margrave of Meißen from the House of Wettin received the eastern part, the Landgraviate of Thuringia (almost all of today's Thuringia), the western part became the Landgraviate of Hesse

1342–1346 · the House Wettin can prevail against a coalition of local Thuringian counts, the counts have to take their land from the Margrave of Meißen and Landgrave of Thuringia to fief, after their extinction these areas fell to Thuringia (except Schwarzburg and Reuss)

1423 · the Margrave of Meissen, Friedrich 'the Martial', got Saxony-Wittenberg (Electorate of Saxony) as fiefdom, thereafter gradual pass of the name "Saxony" to the Margraviate of Meissen

1485 · "Leipzig Partition" of the Wettin's estates between the brethren Duke Albrecht (progenitor of the Wettin-Albertinians) and Elector Ernst (progenitor of the Wettin-Ernestinians); Duke Albrecht: County of Meissen, western Osterland, North Thuringia; Elector Ernst: Electorate of Saxony, South Thuringia, Vogtland

1547 · "Wittenberg Capitulation" the dignity of election passes from the Ernestinians to the Albertinians

1640 · Ernestine Division, Duke Wilhelm IV. divides his Duchy Saxony-Weimar into the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach, under his brother Albrecht, and the Duchy of Saxony-Gotha, under his brother Ernst I. (the Pious)

1675 · death of Duke Ernst I. 'the Pious' of Saxony-Gotha (Ernestins), he leaves seven sons

1680 · Saxony-Gotha is divided among the seven sons, thereby creating of 7 duchies: Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg under Duke Friedrich I., Saxony-Coburg under Duke Albrecht, Saxony-Meiningen under Duke Bernhard I., Saxony-Römhild under Duke Heinrich, Saxony-Eisenberg under Duke Christian, Saxony-Hildburghausen under Duke Ernst, Saxony-Saalfeld under Duke Johann Ernst

1806 · joining of Saxony-Hildburghausen to the Rhine Confederation

1815 · joining to the German Confederation

1825 · Extinction of the Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg line. In 1826 the Saxon duchies in Thuringia were reorganized by an arbitral award made by King Friedrich August I. of Saxony: The Saxony-Hildburghausen line renounces its land and takes over Saxony-Altenburg. Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld cedes Saalfeld. The partial duchies of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld come to Saxony-Meiningen. The partial duchy of Gotha comes to Saxony-Coburg, in this way Saxony-Coburg-Gotha is created.

Source: Wikipedia (D), RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Atlas zur Geschichte

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Origin of the Country's Name

The origin of the name "Saxony" lies in the 5th century in the old Duchy of the Saxons in what is now northwest Germany. The country was smashed by the German emperor in 1180, but the title of "Duke of Saxony" was retained. It was connected to the outskirts of the old duchy and, with the lending to various noble families, the name in principle migrated up the Elbe River to today's Saxony (the then Margraviate of Meissen under the house Wettin) in central Germany. To distinguish it from the real Saxon (the old Duchy), the Saxon of the house of Wettin was called "Upper Saxony". This remained until the term "Hanover" had prevailed for the old Saxon areas, which today are roughly summarized in "Lower Saxony".

The name "Saxony" was transferred to the Thuringian areas in 1485 when the Wettin Saxon was divided into the lines of the Albertines and Ernestines. Since the dukes rejected the promogenitur there for a long time, the duchies were often shared between all the sons, and a dense network of small partial duchies arised (named after the capital of the duchy), which had been oftenly linked to each other, which had been allocated to the various family lines. The were often inherited, partially inherited or even exchanged. This was always reflected in the name of the respective duchy. For example, Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld ceded the partial duchy of Saalfeld and got the partial duchy of Gotha. This is how the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha came into being, consisting of the two sub-duchies (partial duchies) of Coburg and Gotha.

The name Thuringia for the whole region has been preserved, it comes from the old Kingdom of Thuringia, which was destroyed and annexed by the Franks in the 6th century. The Duchy of Thuringia was founded in the 7th century, which in turn only lasted for one century. This was not a tribal duchy, however, since the Thuringians no longer existed. In 1131 the later Emperor Lothar III. established the Landgraviate of Thuringia and gave it to the House of the Ludovingians, who died out in 1247. The country was divided in 1264 after a war of succession between the House of Wettin (as the Landgraviate of Thuringia) and the House of Brabant (as the Landgraviate of Hesse).

Source: Volker Preuß

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