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Saxony-Meiningen

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Cockade

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
1818–1920, Official Flag of the country (Colours of the country),
Source, by: Jens Hild




Flagge Fahne flag Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
1818–1920,
actually used flag, even officially in use,
Source, by: Jens Hild




Flagge Fahne flag Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen Herzog duke
1826–1918,
Greater flag of the Duke,
ratio = 5:7,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle, Ruhmr. Fahnen dt. Geschichte




Flagge Fahne flag Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen Herzog duke
1897–1918,
Lesser flag of the Duke,
Source, by: Ruhmr. Fahnen dt. Geschichte, Snamjena Germanii, Flags of the World



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The colors of the House Wettin are blue and yellow. They have their roots most likely in the crest of the Dominion of Landsberg. These colors were worn by members of the Swiss Guards at the electoral-saxon courts. The bands of some medals had been blue-yellow too. Black and yellow were for centuries the colours (livery color) of the Saxon courts (Albertine and Ernestine). They have their roots the regular coat of arms (black lion in golden field, which later became the arms of the Margraviate of Meissen) or in the coat of arms of the Duchy of Saxony. Black and yellow were used for certificate cords and for many military ensigns since the 17th century. However, national colors in the true sense, they were not yet.

The former Albertine electorate and new kingdom of Saxony joined the Rhine Confederation on 11th of December in 1806, on 15th of December in 1806 followed by the Ernestine duchies in Thuringia. The troops of the duchies were consolidated and equipped with cockades in black and gold in accordance with the convention of the 13th of February in 1807. The cockades of the Kingdom of Saxony remained white.

When the Saxon King Friedrich August I., of the dynasty of the Albertine Wettins, in May 1815 was returning home from captivity to Saxony after the end of the liberation wars against Napoleon, he instructed Lieutenant General of Lecoq at the 22nd of May in 1815, to reorganize and bring home, the at the River Rhine standing Saxon troops. The until this point in time white cockades on the caps of the soldiers were to surround with a green edge by this instruction of the king to avoid confusions with other troops. The news about the creation of the color combination of white and green spread very quickly, and arrived Saxony before the king. So he was received by his people with white and green garlands, flags and ribbons. In recognition of this fact, the monarch decided to use these colors instead of black and gold as the colors of the country. The Saxon duchies (Thuringia), ruled by the Ernestine Wettins took mostly over these arrangements for their colors and flags.

The Dukes of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha gradually took over this regulation, definitively until ca. 1830, namely in the arrangement of colours in green-white. However, were used in practice, even by the authorities, alreday since 1823 white-green(!) cockades, which were changed after the German War from 1866/67 to the arrangement of colours in green-white-green.

The colours of the German states are (called Landesfarben, are often derived from the colours of the coats of arms, and used as cockades, as well as flags), were formed – especially in the German inland countries – rather late, often after the French Revolution and the following wars of liberation. In the period from ca. 1815 to ca. 1830, this process was finally completed in all German states.

The regent Duchess Luise Eleonore decided on 12th of September in 1818, that the colour-combination of white and green are the officiall colours of the country. However, in practice, the colour-combination of green and white was used, even by departments and authorities. On 9th of December in 1895 decided Duke George II., that they should remain at this usage, but in this way arised actually two officiall color-combinations.

A personal flag for the duke was already introduced in 1826. Originally it was 5 m high and 6.75 m wide. It showed two horizontal stripes in green and white and in an enlarged upper corner the image of the coat of arms of the state. This flag was supplemented in 1897 or (according to other sources) in 1900 by another model, which was called the "little standard of the duke". This flag showed four horizontal stripes in green and white and in the upper corner the image of the Saxon coat of arms. This flag resembles a personal flag of the Duke of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha, which was introduced around the same time, only the format (side ratio) and details in the upper corner were different.

The colours of the small Thuringian States persisted after the abdication of the princes, even after the formation of the State of Thuringia on 5th of January in 1920, but they became territorial flags. On 25th of April in 1922 was adopted the "Regulation on the flagging of state buildings", which laid down, that the previous territorial flags have to be no longer in use. Just the abolition of the territories on 1st of April in 1923, was the end for the colours of the former Thuringian States.

Source: Volker Preuß, www.sachsenlied.de, Jens Hild, Flags of the World, Deutsche Wappen Rolle

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
Lesser Coat of arms of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
Middle Coat of arms of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
Shield of the middle Coat of arms of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle


Wappen coat of arms Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
Shield of the greater Coat of arms of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Deutsche Wappen Rolle

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The central element of the heraldry of the Saxon monarchies is the Saxon coat of arms. It was created around 1180 when the Ascanians, margraves of Brandenburg and counts of Ballenstedt became the dukes of Saxony: a green diamond wreath was placed over the black and golden coat of arms of Ballenstedt. In principle, the title of the Duke of Saxony migrated up the Elbe to what is now central Germany, as it was lent to various noble families (last 1423 the Wettins). In 1485 the "Leipzig division" of the Wettin lands took place between the brothers Duke Albrecht (ancestor of the Albertines) and Elector Ernst (ancestor of the Ernestines). The Ernestines divided into many lines, which retained the Saxon heraldry. One of them was Saxony-Meiningen.

About the coat of arms: The greater coat of arms (mantle and pavilion with crown, shield, 4 helmets with crest, shield holders and pedestal) showed at least on the shield next to 18 fields, the Saxon coat of arms as heart shield. The middle coat of arms (mantle and pavilion, shield, crown) showed 4 fields next to the Saxon coat of arms as heart shield: Landgraviate of Thuringia (white and red striped lion on blue), County of Henneberg (black hen on green mountain against golden background), County of Römhild (crowned silver column on red) and Margraviate of Meissen (black lion on gold). The lesser coat of arms (shield and crown) showed only the Saxon coat of arms.

Source: Volker Preuß, Deutsche Wappen Rolle

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Cockade


Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
to 1807,
Cockade of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Jens Hild


Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
1807–1815(?),
Cockade of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Jens Hild


Herzogtum Duchy Sachsen-Meiningen Saxony-Meiningen Saxony Sachsen Meiningen
1866/1867–1920,
Cockade of Saxony-Meiningen,
Source, by: Jens Hild

The former Albertine electorate and new kingdom of Saxony joined the Rhine Confederation on 11th of December in 1806, on 15th of December in 1806 followed by the Ernestine duchies in Thuringia. The troops of the duchies were consolidated and equipped with cockades in black and gold in accordance with the convention of the 13th of February in 1807. The cockades of the Kingdom of Saxony remained white. When the Kingdom of Saxony changed its national colors to white and green on 16th of June in 1815, the Saxon duchies in Thuringia, governed by the Ernestine Wettin family, mostly followed this rule for their national colors, flags and cockades. The arrangement of white and green was varied in different ways.

Source: Volker Preuß, Jens Hild, Deutsche Wappen Rolle

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Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Map

The Thuringian Staates:

Source: Volker Preuß

The map shows the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen between the years 1867 and 1918 in orange.

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 953 square miles (1910)

Inhabitants: 278.750 (1910)

Density of Population: 293 inh./sq.mi. (1910)

Hauptstädte: Meiningen

Currency to 1871: 1 Gulden = 60 Kreuzer = 240 Pfennige

Currency 1871–1924: 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig

Currency 1924–1934: 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Source: Der Michel, Wikipedia (D)

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History

1264 · the Landgraviate of Thuringia (then much larger) was divided after a war of succession, the Margrave of Meißen from the House of Wettin received the eastern part, the Landgraviate of Thuringia (almost all of today's Thuringia), the western part became the Landgraviate of Hesse

1342–1346 · the House Wettin can prevail against a coalition of local Thuringian counts, the counts have to take their land from the Margrave of Meißen and Landgrave of Thuringia to fief, after their extinction these areas fell to Thuringia (except Schwarzburg and Reuss)

1423 · the Margrave of Meissen, Friedrich 'the Martial', got Saxony-Wittenberg (Electorate of Saxony) as fiefdom, thereafter gradual pass of the name "Saxony" to the Margraviate of Meissen

1485 · "Leipzig Partition" of the Wettin's estates between the brethren Duke Albrecht (progenitor of the Wettin-Albertinians) and Elector Ernst (progenitor of the Wettin-Ernestinians); Duke Albrecht: County of Meissen, western Osterland, North Thuringia; Elector Ernst: Electorate of Saxony, South Thuringia, Vogtland

1547 · "Wittenberg Capitulation" the dignity of election passes from the Ernestinians to the Albertinians

1640 · Ernestine Division, Duke Wilhelm IV. divides his Duchy Saxony-Weimar into the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach, under his brother Albrecht, and the Duchy of Saxony-Gotha, under his brother Ernst I. (the Pious)

1675 · death of Duke Ernst I. 'the Pious' of Saxony-Gotha (Ernestins), he leaves seven sons

1680 · Saxony-Gotha is divided among the seven sons, thereby creating of 7 duchies: Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg under Duke Friedrich I., Saxony-Coburg under Duke Albrecht, Saxony-Meiningen under Duke Bernhard I., Saxony-Römhild under Duke Heinrich, Saxony-Eisenberg under Duke Christian, Saxony-Hildburghausen under Duke Ernst, Saxony-Saalfeld under Duke Johann Ernst

1699 · death of Duke Albrecht of Saxony-Coburg, he leaves no heirs, inheritance disputes follow between Saxony-Meiningen, Saxony-Hildburghausen and Saxony-Saalfeld

1735 · Saxony-Coburg largely takes over the area of Saxony-Saalfeld, the Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld line is created

1806 · joining of Saxony-Gotha-Meiningen to the Rhine Confederation

1815 · joining to the German Confederation

1825 · Extinction of the Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg line. In 1826 the Saxon duchies in Thuringia were reorganized by an arbitral award made by King Friedrich August I. of Saxony: The Saxony-Hildburghausen line renounces its land and takes over Saxony-Altenburg. Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld cedes Saalfeld. The partial duchies of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld come to Saxony-Meiningen. The partial duchy of Gotha comes to Saxony-Coburg, in this way Saxony-Coburg-Gotha is created.

1866 · in the Brother War on the hands of the German Confederation (Austria), joining to the North German Confederation

1871 · joining of the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen to the German Empire

1918 · fall of the monarchy, formation of the Free State of Saxony-Meiningen

1st of May in 1920 · dissolved in Thuringia

Source: Wikipedia (D), RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Atlas zur Geschichte

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Origin of the Country's Name

The origin of the name "Saxony" lies in the 5th century in the old Duchy of the Saxons in what is now northwest Germany. The country was smashed by the German emperor in 1180, but the title of "Duke of Saxony" was retained. It was connected to the outskirts of the old duchy and, with the lending to various noble families, the name in principle migrated up the Elbe River to today's Saxony (the then Margraviate of Meissen under the house Wettin) in central Germany. To distinguish it from the real Saxon (the old Duchy), the Saxon of the house of Wettin was called "Upper Saxony". This remained until the term "Hanover" had prevailed for the old Saxon areas, which today are roughly summarized in "Lower Saxony".

The name "Saxony" was transferred to the Thuringian areas in 1485 when the Wettin Saxon was divided into the lines of the Albertines and Ernestines. Since the dukes rejected the promogenitur there for a long time, the duchies were often shared between all the sons, and a dense network of small partial duchies arised (named after the capital of the duchy), which had been oftenly linked to each other, which had been allocated to the various family lines. The were often inherited, partially inherited or even exchanged. This was always reflected in the name of the respective duchy. For example, Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld ceded the partial duchy of Saalfeld and got the partial duchy of Gotha. This is how the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg-Gotha came into being, consisting of the two sub-duchies (partial duchies) of Coburg and Gotha.

The name Thuringia for the whole region has been preserved, it comes from the old Kingdom of Thuringia, which was destroyed and annexed by the Franks in the 6th century. The Duchy of Thuringia was founded in the 7th century, which in turn only lasted for one century. This was not a tribal duchy, however, since the Thuringians no longer existed. In 1131 the later Emperor Lothar III. established the Landgraviate of Thuringia and gave it to the House of the Ludovingians, who died out in 1247. The country was divided in 1264 after a war of succession between the House of Wettin (as the Landgraviate of Thuringia) and the House of Brabant (as the Landgraviate of Hesse).

Source: Volker Preuß

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