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Wuerttemberg

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Cockade

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
13th cent.–1593,
Banner of the counts and dukes,
Source, by: Snamjena Germanii




Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
13th cent.–1809,
unofficial colours of the country,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
1593–1918(?),
House colours (Livree colours) of the Dynasty,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
1809–1816,
Flag of the country (colours),
Source, by: 1.) Wikipedia (D), 2.) Roberto Breschi www.rbvex.it





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
1816–1896,
State flag,
Source, by: FOTW





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
1896–1935,
State flag and colours of the country,
Source, by: FOTW





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg
variant with coat of arms





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg König King
1816–1864,
Flag of the King,
Source, by: Snamjena Germanii





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg König King
1864–1891,
Flag of the King,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg König King
1894–1918,
Flag of the King,
Source, by: FOTW





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg Königin Queen
1897–1918,
Flag of the Queen,
Source, by: FOTW





Flagge Fahne flag Württemberg Wuerttemberg Prinz Prince Kronprinz Crown Prince
1894–1918,
Flag of the Prince,
Source, by: FOTW




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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The black antler rods on gold have been the central heraldry of the House of Württemberg since the 13th century and so black and gold had established themselves as colours. The colours red and gold became the colours of the House of Württembergs in 1593, when the Mömpelgard Dynasty Line of the family obtained the title of the duke. On 14th of December in 1809 the colours were officially defined as a tricolour with the colours black, red and gold. For this purpose, the house colours gold and red were supplemented in the middle by a black stripe (antler rods). Tricolors have been nearly a "must be" during the domination of France, the French tricolor provided the model. After the age of Napoléon, the tricoloured colours were of course abolished. However, the colours red and gold were in use in the neighbouring Baden, while black and gold were used in the neighbouring Habsburg territories. Thus, only the combination of red and black remained as a possible, which were introduced by the king on 26th of December in 1816 as colours.

Another incident for the flag was the seizure of power by the National Socialists in the German Empire in 1933. All official non-swastika flags, that refered to federalism, regional references or the old German Empire were abolished between 1933 and 1935. For the National Socialists, the federal structure of the German Empire, its historically grown countries, was considered as outdated, as relics of a past to be overcome. In this sense, several laws were enacted, on 31st of March in 1933 the 'Provisional Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire', on 7th of April 1933 the 'Second Law for the phasing of the countries with the Empire' and finally, on 30th January in 1934 the 'Law on the rebuilding of the empire'. Thus, the federal structure of the German Empire was replaced by the gau-structure of the NSDAP, the countries became meaningless. From now on, offices and authorities had to use the swastika flag as official flag, until September 15th in 1935, when by the flag-law was legislated a new created official flag for all the offices and authorities of the empire. The prime ministers of the countries, which latest in 1933 all came from the NSDAP – now mostly called Reichsstatthalter (maybe translated as 'governor') – however remained in office until 1945. The corresponding country colours continued, with restrictions, but definitly not in the form of flags. They were used, for example, occasionally on uniforms of the SA or in some ranks of the Hitler Youth in the breast cord.

After the war, the administration within the German Empire was rebuilt, but locally, following the structure of the countries. These have been partly old countries, and some new countries were created. Sometimes they bethought the old country colours and reactivated them – or they created new ones – for limited sovereign duties, which were under the control of the Allies. With the founding of the FRG and the GDR, an internal country-structure was finalised for both entities and corresponding official flags were introduced for these countries.

Source: Wikipedia (D), Heraldique Europeenne, Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt, Uniform-Fibel

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Coat of Arms


Wappen Königreich Württemberg coat of arms kingdom of Wuerttemberg
1817–1918,
coat of arms of the kingdom of Wuerttemberg,

Source, by: Von Glasshouse - Eigenes WerkDiese Datei enthält Elemente, die von folgender Datei entnommen oder adaptiert wurden:  Coat of Arms of Mary of Teck.svg (von Sodacan).Diese Datei enthält Elemente, die von folgender Datei entnommen oder adaptiert wurden:  Lesser CoA luxembourg.svg (von Katepanomegas).Diese Datei enthält Elemente, die von folgender Datei entnommen oder adaptiert wurden:  Wapen van de provincie Antwerpen.svg (von Adelbrecht)., CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg shows a splited golden shield – sometimes also formed as a with oak leaves wreathed cartridge – with the antler rods (insignia the House of Württemberg) on one side and with three black lions (insignia of the House of Hohenstaufen as Dukes Of Swabia) on the other side. Supporters were a black crowned lion and a golden deer. The postament was formed by a red banner, it shows the golden inscription "Furchtlos und trew" ("Fearless and faithful"). Since the 13th century, the antler rods have formed the central heraldry of the House of Württemberg, which appeared again and again on coats of arms, of course over centuries repeatedly expanded by the symbolism of acquired titles and territories. Important was here the heritage of the Lordship of Mömpelgard in 1444 and its heraldry, two averting vertical golden barbs. When the Stuttgart-Line of the House of Württemberg vanished out in 1593 Frederick I. from the Mömpelgard-Line became duke. The heraldry of Mömpelgard (now Montbéliard) appeared now in the ducal coat of arms, and the colours red and gold have since then been mentioned as the house colours of the of the House of Württemberg. Black and gold, however, had long times ago established themselves as colours of the country. With the acquisition of the royal dignity in 1805, the heraldry of the House of Hohenstaufen as the dukes of Swabia was included in the coat of arms – three black lions on gold – because King Frederick I. hoped to gain an expansion in the old Swabian territories in Baden, today's Switzerland or Bavaria to the river Lech. After the Napoleonic era, with the disintegration of the empire and the wars of liberation, in 1817 King William I. of Württemberg reduced the uptous coat of arms to its heart shield and the coat of arms showed since then only the black antler rods and the lions.

Source, by: Wikipedia (D), Heraldique Europeenne

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Cockade


Kokarde Württemberg cockade Wuerttemberg
from 1809,
Cockade of Wuerttemberg

Kokarde Württemberg cockade Wuerttemberg
1816–1919,
Cockade of Wuerttemberg

In the Napoleonic period, the cockades of the country showed from 1807 the color-combination of red-black-yellow, but in the year 1919 black-red-black.

Source, by: Jürgen Kaltschmitt, nach
P. Bunde, Brigadeuniformtafel Nr. 319, Herzogenrath 2016

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Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 7.532 square miles

Inhabitants: 2.580.000 (1925)

Density of Population: 337 inh./sq.mi. (1925)

Capital: Stuttgart

Currency to 1875: 1 Gulden = 60 Kreuzer

Currency 1875–1924: 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig

Currency 1924–1948: 1 Reichsmark (RM) = 100 Reichspfennig (Rpf.)

Source: Historisches Deutschland, Der Michel, Wikipedia (D)

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History

ca. 750-1268 · Duchy of Swabia

11. Jhd. · formation of the County of Wuerttemberg

13.–14. Jhd. · annexation of staufic and suebic territories

1495 · elevation to Duchy of Wuerttemberg

1519 · duke Ulrich sells the whole estates of his house to the Habsburgs

1534 · duke Ulrich rules his country as an austrian fiefdom

1599 · Wuerttemberg is a empire's fiefdom again (Holy Roman Empire of German Nation)

1803 · cede of territories left of the Rhine to France, elevation to Electorate of Wuerttemberg

1805 · elevation to Kingdom of Wuerttemberg

1819 · introduction of a constitution

1849 · re-introduction of the constitution of 1819

1866 · in the brother war on the hands of the German Confederation (Austria)

1871 · joining to the German Empire, with a special exemption (to 1918 own postal administration - Royal Wuerttemberg Post, to 1903 own Wuerttemberg Stamps)

1918 · November Revolution, resignation of king Wilhelm II.

1919 · new constitution → Free People's State of Wuerttemberg

1945 · occupation by US-american and French troops, dissolution of the country Wuerttemberg and creation of the countries of Wuerttemberg-Hohenzollern (French occupied) and Wuerttemberg-Baden (US-american occupied)

Source: Wikipedia (D), RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Discovery '97


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Origin of the Country's Name

The name "Württemberg" goes back to the former – until 1918 ruling – dynasty of the Dukes of Württemberg. Their name has its roots in the Castle Wirtemberg (located in Stuttgart-Rotenberg). With the elevation of the Duchy to an Electorate in 1803, the name of the country was officially changed from "Wirtemberg" to "Württemberg". One of the reasons therefore was, that his Majesty were suffering, that the ruler of the country - whether count or duke, was called "eternally and continually" as well by his subjects as by his German fellow rulers, in memory of the very hard-drinking Count Eberhard of Wirtenperg (also Wirrtemperg or Wirtemberg) "Wirt am Berge, engl: host on the mountain". With the new, elegantly high German country name Württemberg it was over and done with such disrespectful jokes.(1) Sometimes is used instead of "Württemberg", the name "Swabia" ("Schwaben"). This points out the the here living German tribe of the "Swabians".

Source: (1)Jürgen Kaltschmitt, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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