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Foix

 

Contents

Flag

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Map of the historical Regions in France

Explanations about the Regions

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flag

Flagge Fahne flag drapeau Foix
Flag of Foix,
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The flag of Foix shows the image of the arms of the County of Foix, like it was in use from the 12th to the 14th century.

Source: Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms


Wappen arms crest blason Foix Comminges
819–1302,
Comminges,
Coat of arms of the County of Foix
– blason de Comté de Foix,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)



Wappen arms crest blason Foix Comminges
Coat of arms of the House of Comminges
– blason de Maison du Comminges,
Source, by: heraldique.org


Wappen arms crest blason Béarn Foix-Béarn Comminges
1302–1412,
Comminges,
Coat of arms of the Dominion of Béarn and Foix
– blason des seigneurs du Béarn et Foix,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Grailly
Coat of arms of the House of Grailly
– blason de Maison du Grailly,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)


Wappen arms crest blason Béarn Bigorre Foix Grailly
1412–1517,
Grailly,
Coat of arms of the Dominion of Béarn, Bigorre and Foix
– blason des seigneurs du Béarn, Bigorre et Foix,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Limousin Albret d'Albret
1517–1572,
d'Albret,
Coat of arms of the House of d'Albret
– blason de Maison d'Albret,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason de Bourbon
1572–1610,
de Bourbon,
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon
– blason de Maison du Bourbon,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

That coat of arms, which is today known as the coat of arms of Foix, is very old. It goes back to the first counts out of the House of Comminges, who ruled the country from the 9th to the beginning of the 15th century. It shows three vertical red bars on gold. This image of the coat of arms was taken over in the coats of arms of the successors in the rule over the county. The House of Comminges ruled between 1302 and 1412 over the County of Béarn, too. Their coat of arms as the Lords of Béarn and Foix was squared - four times divided - and the first and third field showed three vertical red bars on gold (the heraldry of Foix), and the second and fourth field showed two red cows on gold, the revived old heraldry of Béarn, dating from the 9th to the 12th century. The House of Comminges itself - as a family - used another coat of arms. It showed a red "paws cross" on silver. The counties of Béarn and Foix were inherited by the son of the last countess to the House of Grailly. The House of Grailly ruled between 1412 and 1517 over the County of Béarn. Their coat of arms as the Lords of Béarn, Foix and Bigorre was the coat of arms of the House of Comminges as counts of Béarn und Foix, topped with the coat of arms of Bigorre as a central shield. This showed two red stalking lions on gold. The House of Grailly itself - as a family - used another coat of arms. It showed a black, topped with five silvery shells, "bar cross" on silver. The county was inherited by the son of the last countess to the House of d'Albret. Between 1517 and 1572, the House of d'Albret was enfeoffed with the County of Béarn. Their coat of arms was squared - four times divided - and the first and third field showed three golden lilies on blue, and the second and fourth field was solid red. The county was inherited by the son of the last countess to the House of Bourbon. The associated Heraldry showed the blue, with golden lilies topped shield of the Capetians, which was covered with a red oblique-right bar. The Heraldry of Béarn, Bigorre Foix and was included in the great Coat of Arms of the d'Albret, as well as that of Navarre. The coat of arms of the Capetians showed three golden lilies on blue, but originally was the coat of arms sprinkled with lilies. From 1365 (by others sources 1376), the number of lilies was reduced to three. The lily-symbol is very old, already the Germanic tribe of the Franks has used it. The House of the Capetians has provided the kings of France between 987 and 1328. It goes back to Hugo Capet, son of Hugo the Great, who was electet to the King of France, in 987, after the death of King Ludwig V. from the House of the Carolingians. The Capetians brought out three branch lines which became the Kings of France: Valois 1328–1589, Bourbon 1589–1792 and 1814–1830, and Orléans 1830–1848.

Source: Wikipedia (DE), Wikipedia (FR), Volker Preuß

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Map of the historical Regions in France

The historical, French Regions:

in black: governorate and province in 1776,
in red: former county, province oder governorate

Map: Volker Preuß

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Explanations about the Regions

The until the French Revolution existing provinces (or governorates) have been historically grown structures, which had their roots oftenly in former fiefdoms of the French crown, historic counties and duchies. They oftenly existed for hundreds of years and had preserved regionality (e.g. cultural particularities and regional languages). On the occasion of the French Revolution such phenomena were of course not desirable, and as part of their bloody and violent egalitarianism any regional references were eliminated. Shortly after the French Revolution the provinces were dissolved and France became divided into many départements, which should have approximately the same size and the same status. The départements were named after rivers or mountains, to use never and in no circumstances the name of an old province. However, there was no success in cutting the connections of the people of France to their respective regions, so that administrative regions were re-created in 1960, to have a better control in regional administrative processes. In this way became départements, which were placed in a historical province, administratively grouped to an oftenly historically named region. The resulted structures coincide only approximately with the boundaries of the old provinces. In the strictly centralist France any regionality is avoided, so that even the official flags of these regions mostly look like flags of companies, unloving, unhistorical, technocratic and modernistic, and these flags should not be a subject of any lexical considerations here. Only in a few of that regions, exist official flags which remember the historical models. But, even the existence of these today's regions is douptful, because in 2014 was passed a territorial reform valid from the year 2016, that reduces the number of the existing regions by merging to nearly the half. However, there exist unofficial flags in nearly all of these regions, which should remember the old provinces and the old heraldry.

Wikipedia Link to the regions of France: click or tap here
FOTW Link to the regions of France: click or tap here

Source: Flags of the World, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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History

antiquity · settlement by Iberian and Celtic tribes, the largest of them are the Tectosages

52 B.C. · Roman conquest, later forming the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the south of Gaul

413 A.D. · conquest by the Visigoths

5th century A.D. · conquest of Gaul by the Franks (under King Clovis) to 507 conquest of Aquitaine, and also of the region around the later City of Foix, which is affiliated to Aquitaine, expansion of the empire to the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Alps

550 · administrative division of the empire into the kingdoms of Austrasia and Neustria, and the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Kingdom of Burgundy

639 · death of King Dagobert I., the power goes over to the Mayors of the Palace (maior domus) of Austrasia (House of the Carolingians)

687 · Pepin II. asserts itself as Mayor of the Palace throughout the Frankish Empire

751 · Pepin the Short (III., grandson of Pepin II.) eliminates the Merovingian monarchy and lets hisself elect to the king from the Franks

759 · Charlemagne conquers Septimania and founds the County of Carcassonne, Foix becomes affiliated to it

819 · founding of the County of Béarn

843 · division of the Frankish Empire (Treaty of Verdun), there arise the West Frankish Kingdom of Charles II. (the Bald), the Middle Frankish Kingdom of Lothar (Lotharingia), and the East Frankish Kingdom of Louis II., Aquitaine comes to the Empire of Charles the Bald

870 · at the division of the Frankish Empire (Treaty of Meersen) arises the West Frankish Kingdom, the East Frankish Kingdom, and the Frankish Kingdom of Italy

880 · by the division of the Frankish Empire (Treaties of Verdun and Ribbemont) arises the West Frankish Kingdom (later France), the East Frankish Kingdom (later German Empire), the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy (under Rudolf the Welf) and the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy persists

898 · Odo, Count of Paris and Duke of Francia, is elected to the king of the West Frankish Empire

1034 · establish of the County of Foix, by inheritance of the County of Carcassonne-Couserans after the death of Count Roger Bernard between his sons, Roger I. becomes the first Count of Foix

1067 · Count Roger II. can reunite the by the legacy of 1034 divided county, as the seat of the Counts remains Foix

12th century · spread of the Cathars (Albigensians)

1209–1229 · Albigensian Crusade under Simon IV. de Montfort, the Count of Foix is able to assert

1226 · crusade of King Louis VIII. of France against the Albigensians, the Counts of Foix have to submit to the King of France in 1229 and 1243

1302 · death of Countess Margaret of Béarn, because she had married Count Roger Bernard III. of Foix (House of the Comminges), is their son the new Count of Béarn as Gaston VIII.  (as Gaston I. Count of Foix)

1328 · death of King Charles IV. (the Fair), extinction of the direct Capetian line, according to Salic Law Count Philip of Valois (Son of Prince Charles of Valois, first cousin of King Charles IV.) came on the French throne (as King Philip VI .), the English king Edward III. lays claim to the throne as a maternal nephew of Charles IV., reason for the "Hundred Years War" (Anglo-French War, 1338–1453), out of the House of Valois came all kings of France from 1328 to 1589

1398 · death of Count Mathieu of Foix-Béarn, the House of the Comminges remains without a male heir, the heritage – and thus the County of Béarn – goes to his sister Isabella

1412 · death of Countess Isabella, because she had married Archambaud, the Count of Bigorre (House Grailly), is their son as Count Johann I. the new Count of Bearn, Bigorre and Foix

1447 · acquisition of the Viscounty of Narbonne

1458 · the Counts of Béarn, Bigorre and Foix (House Grailly) acquire the peerage and climb up to the French nobility

1483 · death of Count Franz Phoebus (King of Navarre, Count of Béarn, Count of Foix and Bigorre), the House Grailly remains without a male heir, the legacy of – and thus the County of Foix – goes to his sister Catherine

1517 · death of Countess Catherine, because she had married Jean d'Albret (Duke of Nemours, Count of Foix, Bigorre, Armagnac and Perigord and Viscount of Limoges), is their son Henry I. the new Count of Foix and Béarn, and also King of Navarre, Duke of Nemours, Count of Bigorre, Armagnac and Perigord and Viscount of Limoges

1555 · death of Henry I., the House Albret remains without a male heir, the legacy – and thus the County of Foix – goes to his daughter Johanna (Jeanne d'Albret), since 1548 married to Antoine de Bourbon

1572 · death of Jeanne d'Albret, the heritage – and thus the County of Foix – goes to her son Henry III. of Navarre, King of Navarre (as Henry III.), Duke of Vendôme and Nemours, Count of Foix, Bigorre, Armagnac and Perigord and Viscount of Limoges

1589 · death of Henry III., King of France, Henry III. had no descendants, extinction of the line of Valois, Henry III. determined Henry of Navarre (House of Bourbon) as his successor, which is as Henry IV., the Good, Henri le Bon, the new King of France

1607 · death of King Henry IV. of France, the County of Foix becomes a part of the royal domain and a province of France, but is equipped with some special rights of a estates state, what could be an own estates assembly (a kind of parliament) or may even mean an own tax jurisdiction towards the king

1776 · the already in the 14th century created governorates of the civil administration of the kingdom of France become committed to a number of 39, and correspond in this way to the number of provinces, in previous years could any provinces be summarized in one governorate

1789 · French Revolution, the governorates and provinces become abolished, Foix comes to the Départment of Ariège

1960 · reintroduction of regions in France, formation of the Midi-Pyrénées Region (capital Toulouse), but not within the historic boundaries, just by integration of the Départments of Ariège, Aveyron, Haute-Garonne, Gers, Lot, Hautes-Pyrénées, Tarn and Tarn-et-Garonne

Source: Wikipedia (D), Meyers Konversationslexikon

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name of the county goes back to the city of the same name, which goes back to a chapel donated by Charlemagne and a monastery that was later built here.

Source: Wikipedia (DE)

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