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A banner is a flag or a bunting bearing a symbol.


Banner of Arms:

A banner of arms is a flag whose design is the same as in the shield of a coat of arms.



A bicolour is a flag with two equally wide, vertical or horizontal stripes, in different colours.


Blue Ensign:

see: Ensign


Coat of Arms:

The coat of arms is the heraldic emblem of a state. Its use is usually restricted and only allowed for government departments, authorities and agencies.



A cockade is a colored badge, specially for caps of soldiers and officers. A cockade displays - mostly designed in concentric circles - the state or national colors. It is not a state emblem in the real sense, but it denotes the bearer of the cockade as acting in sovereign interests. For soldiers applies: the cockade denotes the soldier as a regular combatant. A combatant is a for fight with weapons authorized person, following international laws. For these persons apply in the event of capture the regulation of the 3rd Geneva Convention from 12th of August in 1949 for the handling of prisoners of war. In previous civil wars sometimes large cockades were worn on civilian clothes of the fighters to allow the recognition as friend or foe.


Colonel flag:

In the 17th century (Thirty Years' War, English Civil War, Northern War, conflicts in North America) a so-called "war entrepreneur" recruited serviceable soldiers for his regiment, what he ran like a commercial company and it was mostly commanded by himself, with the rank of a colonel, of course on behalf of a sovereign. Each regiment was assigned a specific colour, which its flags also had to show. Initially that could be up to 14 flags, from the middle of the 17th century that number was reduced to 4 flags per regiment. Due to the very linear order of battle, each company of a regiment aligned itself with its own flag on that company which was personally subordinated to the colonel. That one company used the unadorned colonel-flag, shown only in the regimental colour. The flags of the subordinated companies, which were also commanded by lower ranks, usually displayed an emblem in the upper left corner. In addition, the flag showed symbols such as discs, "flames" or the like this. The number of it could also show the ranks of the following company commanders, e.g. lieutenant colonel, major down to the captains. Standing, uniformed armies were formed towards the end of the 17th century. Their regiments were all recruited by "noble gentlemen of the state", who naturally wanted to show their personal coat of arms, symbols or badges on "their" colonel-flag, and they did so. Around the middle of the 18th century, the flags used by a regiment were standardized, on instructions of the respective monarchs. So there were mostly two flags, namely the body flag (royal or ducal etc.) and the regimental flag, that flag, which corresponded to the badge-colour of the regiment.
(Source: Jürgen Kaltschmitt)


Colours (Landesfarben):

The Landesfarben (colours of the country) display the heraldic colors of a country, so those colours which can be derived from the colors of the coat of arms or of the flag. But they are not a national symbol. It is allowed to use the Landesfarben – even designed as a flag - for decorative purposes by anyone, if nothing other is specified by the law. If the Landesfarben were designed as a flag, is it often not allowed to show them with a coat of arms, crest or something like that, because they could be seen as a symbol of authorities.The Landesfarben appear very often the design as national flags. Furthermore Landesfarben are only used, if a use as a national flag is not possible, just because of the lack of a nation. That is common, for example, in the today’s and old German or Austrian states, countries, that have their own jurisdiction – marked by their own flags – but they represent no nation.
The so-called colours (Landesfarben) are a relatively new phenomenon, especially in the German inland countries. They arised in the course of the French Revolution and especially during the following wars of liberation, as it was necessary, to be able to recognize, the belonging to political coalitions or military units. This has been implemented mainly by cockades. Their design and color scheme, e.g. the sequence, was not regulated, because it was not so important, but at least, the colours were used. Flags in the colours played initially nearly no role, rather more sumptuous regimental flags and so on, but also personal banners. Other colors, for example, on uniforms, as saber-tassels, fourageres, or as pennants on lances have been important, but they were necessary to distinguish better the regiments of a brigade or of an army. If the introduce of the colours had not been laid down in a special regulation, remain only hints to their forming and implementation, maybe a color-change in the sealing-cords of authorities, but not to forget, that subordinated authorities were supplied later, or they exhausted old stocks. Not until cockades, sealing-cords and medal-ribbons appeared in the same colour, could it be called a complete introduction of the colors.



Dipping is called the flag salute in the maritime domain. For that, the flag is hauled down to half the height of the flagpole or flag stick, and raised again to full height.



As emblems are called all symbols of national sovereignty. Their shape, design and use is regulated by the respective states and authorities in quite different laws. Emblems are: the coat of arms or seal of a state, the official flag (state flag), the national flag, the merchant flag, the naval flag or ensign and all official flags of state authorities. Even cockades on caps or nationality marks of armored combat vehicles and fighter planes belong to them.



The word ensign is of English origin and means a flag or a banner. Furthermore, it is used as a military rank of a lieutenant at sea. Originally, the term was used for an standard-bearer. In the today's world of flags is an Ensign a special flag that was used and is used in the area of the British Empire. The Ensign was developed, by use of a single coloured bunting, and place of another flag into the upper corner (upper staff quadrant). Although ensigns were used since the 17th century, Great Britain introduced the ensign flag system officially not until 1864. That means, that it became officially valid and was subjected to a strict set of rules. In this way warships had to use since 1864 a so-called "White Ensign", a white flag (frequently with an uninterrupted red cross on it) with the British Union Jack in the upper corner. In the non-English-speaking world is such a flag called as naval flag. Other vessels of the government had to use a "Blue Ensign" since 1864, a blue flag with the British Union Jack in the upper corner. The "Blue Ensign" is in this way, even ashore, known as a flag of the government or administrative departments. In the non-English-speaking world is such a flag called as state flag. Merchant ships had to use since 1864 "Red Ensign", that is a red flag with the British Union Jack in the upper corner. In the area of the former British Empire can individuals use such a flag at sea, in the colonies only when a permit was granted for that colony by the British Admiralty. In this way some colonies had and have no "Red Ensign". The "Red Ensign" is in the English-speaking world also called "Civil Ensign", a so-called "Citizens Flag", a further indication that individuals may use such a flag at sea. In the non-English-speaking countries the "Red Ensign" is often called as merchant flag (not quite right). Since 1865 ships of colonial governments could use a "Blue Ensign" with an own badge in the flying end, for distinction. The respective governments should provide own Badges for that. The provisions of the Ensign system are still relevant in Great Britain and its colonies. But they have also been preserved in many former British colonies, and some of the now independent states have even retained the British Union Jack in the upper corner (eg. Australia, New Zealand), or they use variations in the colour hue of the "Blue Ensign", eg. pale blue, as a sign of their independence (eg. Fiji, or the former Southern Rhodesia). Most of the former British colonies replaced the British Union Jack in the upper corner by their own national flag, and /or the use of the Red Ensign is limited to merchant ships (eg. India, Pakistan), or they completely strayed from the use of the Ensign flag system.



A flag is a bunting with a distinctive design, which is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or for decoration.


Flying end:

The flying end is this side of the flag, facing away from the flagpole.



see: mourning flagging



The jack (or naval jack) is the bow flag of warships. It is therefore hoisted on the front of a ship. Further, it may be identical to the naval or war flag, or it is an especially for this purpose designed flag. In some countries, a jack is common for merchantmen. The naval jack is hoisted when the ship is anchored in the harbor. The use of the jack itself comes from the "Geuzen", the Dutch freedom fighters of the 16th century. The Geuzen used first a jack in the modern sense, because it seemed that the main flag of their ships was shot away during a sea battle with the Spanish fleet. Thus, the replacement was already planned.



As leech is called the to the flagpole facing side of a flag. Often is meant with that the white hem of the flag in which the line is sewn.


Merchant flag:

A merchant flag is a flag for the merchant ships of a state, that often resembles the state or national flag. The right for the use of the merchant flag is awarded by the flag certificate of that State in which the vessel is registered, and it must be used by every in the register of merchant ships registered ship. Thus the merchant flag can only be used by vessels that are not warships, governmental or auxiliary vessels or yachts. The peculiarity is here, that a ship is not an extraterritorial area, and it belongs as a merchant vessel to a private owner and it does not represent a state itself. Thus, the use of a national or even a state flag is usually prohibited. The merchant flag was once created, to give individuals the necessary possibility to express their nationality at sea. The announcement of the nationality is particularly necessary at the arrival and departure of ships in harbors. In the English-speaking world the merchant flag is called "Civil Ensign", but this has furthermore some special features in the use (look "Ensign").


Mourning flagging:

Half-mast is a gesture of mourning. For that is the flag, after hoisting it up, to set back on half-mast or half-pole. If this is not possible, the flag will be added at the top (at the leech) with a black ribbon.


National flag:

The national flag is an emblem of a state. Some states allow it use by its citizens, without limitation, others allow it only on some national and international holidays and memorial days. In some states is the use of the national flag reserved for state departments and authorities. The use of the national flag by seagoing private vessels, boats and yachts, what means private marine vessels, which may leave the territorial waters, is specifically regulated by the respective states. Thus, often only the national flag should be displayed here, when it is allowed by the government. Sometimes - not quite right - the national flag is also called as state flag.


Naval flag:

The naval flag is the official flag of the battle ships and boats of the naval forces of a state. The for the naval forces operating auxiliary vessels use in many states a special flag.


Official flag:

An official flag is the reserved for use by government or departments. It is often called as state flag.
look: state flag, look: naval official flag


Official flag at sea:

The official flag at sea is reserved for ships, vehicles and buildings of the state’s maritime authorities. Sometimes there exist separate flags for high seas and inland waters.



As pennant is called a triangular flag.


Postal flag:

The postal flag is a special flag. In the times in which the activities of the postal and mail services had beren one of the sovereign tasks of a country, the postal flag was a flag, which was often similar to the national flag. On land it marked at least the location of a post office and higher offices. At sea it marked mail ships, sometimes carried as jack (bow flag). On merchant ships, it could show whether there was mail on board. Most postal systems are now privatized worldwide, so that it is no longer a sovereign task, but a commercial venture that is no longer marked by a special flag. In addition, the most frequented mail route today is air freight. For the reasons mentioned above, you will hardly come across the postal flag in the seafaring at sea nowadays.


Rank flag:

A rank flag is the flag of the commander of a warship or of the commander of a military naval unit. The rank flag is set on the mast of the ship on which the commander resides. As a rank flag is also called a flag, whose use is reserved for military commanders. e.g. flag for admirals and generals.


Red ensign:

see: Ensign



A standard is actually a square flag. It came originally from flags of mounted troops, but is since the beginning of the 19th century in many countries a rank flag of heads of state and princes.


State flag:

The state flag is the national emblem of a state, whose use is exclusively reserved for government departments (the so-called official flag). In some states ships in the civil service use also the state flag, other states have special flags for this purpose (see official flag at sea). In some countries has the state flag the same appearance like the national flag.



A swallowtail-flag is a flag whose flying end is triangular cut. Swallowtails are a specific design of military and official flags, especially of commandsigns and insignias. A special form of the swallowtails shows in the middle of the incision a "tongue".



A tricolour is a flag with three equally wide, vertical or horizontal stripes, in three different colours.


Union Jack:

When James I. (1567-1625), King of Scotland from 1567, united the crowns of Scotland and England in personal union after the death of Queen Elizabeth I. in 1603, a new flag was created for this kingship, which united the flags of England and Scotland. The flag of England is white with a to the edge reaching red cross in the center (St. George's Cross) and the flag of Scotland is dark blue with a with a to the edge reaching white diagonal cross in the middle (St. Andrew's Cross). These two symbols were effectively combined. This flag was called "Union Jack" at least since 1633. This name is probably derived from the short form of the name of King James I. (= Jack). In 1541, the English King Henry VIII. became King of Ireland too, and from 1649 the Heraldry of Ireland was incorporated in the Union Jack, initially with the harp crest, from 1801 with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick. Thus, the current national flag of Great Britain came into being, which has retained the name "Union Jack" until today.


Upper Corner:

As upper corner (upper staff quadrant) is called the from the general design often differing top corner at the leech.


War Flag:

As war flag is often called the naval flag, what means the official flag of combat ships and boats of the naval forces of a state. The war flag can also be a single flag that is used by all branches of the armed forces, like Navy, Army and Air Force.



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