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Parma

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Map of the historical states in Italy

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name

Map of the today's regions of Italy



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1545–1731,
State flag,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1735–1748,
State flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Frankreich France Francia
1802–1814,
Parma belongs to France




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1815–1848,
State flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1848,
State flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1848–1849,
State flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1850–1851,
State flag,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag bandiera Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
1851–1859,
State flag,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The flag of the Duchy of Parma showed originally the image of the coat of arms of the Farnese family, six blue lilies on gold. After the end of the reign of the Farnese family , the flags of each ruling dynasties may have been used. In 1815 (Congress of Vienna) , the Duchy of Parma was restored under the Duchess Marie-Louise of Austria, and it is handet over a vertically striped flag in the colors red and white. Maybe the colors go back to the house colors of the Austrian Habsburgs, who used the red-white-red shield of the House of Babenberg. From 1847 reigned again the House of Bourbon, the Bourbon-Parma sideline, and it was introduced a horizontally striped flag in the colors yellow and blue. This could be the house colors of the line Boubon-Parma , or, more likely, a revival of the old colors of Parma, the colors of the Farnese family, which were reproduced from 1850 in an other arrangement, and from 1851 – to the end of the Duchy in 1859 – were additionally surrounded by a red border.

Source: Wikipedia (D), World Statesmen, Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms

Wappen coat of arms stemma Herzogtum Duchy Ducato Parma e Piacenza di Parma
Coat of Arms of Parma (House of Farnese),
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the Duchy of Parma was originally the coat of arms of the Farnese family. It showed six blue lilies on gold. This heraldic image then appears again and again in the heraldry of the coat of arms of the Dukes of Parma on, from whatever noble house they came, Habsburg or Bourbon. Even Napoleon's son Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte used between 1814 and 1817 the title "Prince of Parma", and his coat of arms showed also the six lilies.

Source: Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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Historical states in Italy, ca. 1850–1858

all state denominations in English:
interaktive Landkarte
Source: Volker Preuß

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 2.378 square miles (ca. 1858)

Inhabitants: 502.250 (ca. 1858)

Density of Population: 211 inh./sq.mi. (ca. 1858)

Capital: Parma

Sprache: Italian

Source: Meyers Konversationslexikon

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History

antiquity · in the today's region of Parma settle Raetians, Umbrians and Celts

since 5th cent. B.C. · immigration of Etruscians from the Alpes

since 225 B.C. · Roman conquest, establishment of the Province of Gallia Cisalpina

89 B.C. · the Province of Gallia Cisalpina gets incorporated into the Province of Italy

452 · Hun's invasions

476 · dismissal of the last Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus, end of the (West)Roman Empire, the today's Lombardy belongs until 493 to the Empire of the Odoaker

489 · conquest of the region by the Eastern Goth

535 · conquest by Byzantium (East Rome)

568/569 · conquest and settlement by the Langobardes (to the Lombardy)

774 · conquest by the Franks

781 · incorporation of the Lombardy into the Frankish Empire of the Carolingians

843 · at the division of the Frankish Empire comes the Lombardy to the Kingdom of Italy

888 · after the vanish of the Carolingians disintegrates the Region into small states

961 · Otto I. brings Parma to the German Kingdom

ca. 1000 · Parma joines the Lombardian Alliance against the German Emperor (Milan, Bergamo, Lecco, Cremona, Mantua and Brescia)

1167 · the Lombardian Alliance takes position against the German Emperor Frederick I. (Barbarossa)

1183 · recognition of the independence of the Lombardian Alliance

ca. 1215–1350 · fights between Ghibellines (emperor's party) and the Guelfes (pope's party)

1277 · Ottone Visconti takes over the power in Milano, later rules the family from Milano the whole Lombardy

1328 · the family Gonzaga takes over the power in Mantua (later Duchy of Mantua, 1708 to the House of Habsburg

1395 · Gian Galeazzo Visconti receives from the German King Wenceslaus of Luxembourg the title of the Duke of Milan

1450 · extinction of the Visconti family, the family Sforza takes over the Duchy of Milan

1499 · France intervenes in Northern Italy, the Duchy of Milan becomes a French estate

1512 · Parma gets separated as an own duchy from the Duchy of Milan

1545 · Parma is awarded by Pope Paul III. as a duchy to his son Pier Luigi Farnese as a fief

1547 · Pier Luigi Farnese is murdered, the fiefdom passed over to Ottavio Farnese, who also receives Piacenza (hence Duchy of Parma and Piacenza)

1731 · extinction of the Farnese family

1731–1735 · Parma comes as Secundogeniture to the House of the Spanish Bourbons

1735 · Vienna Preliminary Peace , the Spanish Bourbons exchange Parma with Emperor Karl VI . against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Parma becoes in this way an Austrian-Habsburg possession

1748 · Peace of Aachen, Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, cedes Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (since then to Parma) as Secundogeniture of the the Spanish Bourbons to the Spanish Infante Philip of Parma, with this arises the sideline of Bourbon-Parma

1796 · conquest of northern Italy by French troops, the Duke of Parma has to buy back his title and possessions from Napoléon

1802 · the Duke dies, Napoleon takes over the Duchy and dissolves it

1805 · annexation of the former duchy by the Napoléonic France

1814/15 · Congress of Vienna , restoration of the Duchy of Parma under the Duchess Marie-Louise of Austria, wife of Napoleon, former Empress of France, mother of Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles Bonaparte, Duke of Reichstadt and Prince of Parma

1847 · death of Duchess Marie-Louise of Austria , the House of Bourbon-Parma returns to the throne of Parma

1848 · uprising in Parma, introduction of reforms, close connections to Austria

1848–1849 · in almost all of Italy uprising of the people's movement "Giovine Italia" under Mazzini and Garibaldi, Charles Albert of Sardinia-Piedmont sets himself at the top of the uprising, his troops occupie Parma, but had it to leave after the battle of Novara, the Austrian troops return, the Italian uprising ends in disagreement

27th of March in 1854 · Duke Karl dies because of theconsequences of an assassination, his minor son, Robert, is proclaimed as the Duke, his mother Louise Bourbon is set in as regent

1857 · the Austrian troops leave Parma

1859 · Italian war of independence against Austria , the people of Parma requests the annexation to Sardinia-Piedmont, Louise Bourbon flees on 30th of April to Mantua, but she was called back by the troops of Parma and returnes on 4th of May, after the Battle of Magenta the Austrian troops withdrew and Louise Bourbon goes on 9th of June in exile in Switzerland

18th of March in 1860 · after a referendum annexation of Parma to Sardinia-Piedmont

17th of March in 1861 · coronation of Victor Emmanuel II. of Sardinia-Piedmont to the King of the Kingdom of Italy

1947 · establish of the Emilia-Romagna region as an administrative unit of Italy, it includes the territories of the former states of the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Modena and of the the Papal States (Patrimony of Peter)

Source: Meyers Konversationslexikon, Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D)

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Origin of the Country's Name

The city of Parma was foundet under the Roman Emperor Augustus as "Colonia Julia Augusta Parma". The meaning of the name "Parma" is unclear.

Source: Handbuch der geographischen Namen

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Today's regions of Italy

all denominations in Italian
interaktive Landkarte
Source: Volker Preuß

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