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Trieste

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Map of the crown lands of the Littoral

Map of the former crown lands of Austria-Hungary (to 1918)

Numbers and Facts

History

Historical Maps

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Stadt Triest City Trieste Trst
1464–1919,
theoretical banner of Trieste,
Source, by: Wikipedia (IT)




Flagge Fahne flag Flag of the country Colours of the country colours colors Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest Herrschaft Triest Imperial Free City of Trieste Dominion of Trieste Trst
1861(?)–1918,
Flag of the country (Colours of the country),
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Flag of the country Colours of the country colours colors Stadt Freistaat Triest City Freestate Free State of Trieste Trst
since 1919,
Flag of the City and Free State of Trieste,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The country had – like all the other crown lands of the Austrian crown – its own colours (Landesfarben), which were used amongst others on horizontally two- or three-striped flags. The colours (Landesfarben) were very often taken from the respective coat of arms of the country or were supplemented by another colour, which not appears in the coat of arms, or they went back to older models of the coat of arms (e.g. Carniola). Officially, the colours had never been regulated or stipulated, so that their sequence varied in practice or even the colors deviated. The Austrian heraldist Hugo Gerard Ströhl (1851–1919) was probably the first to take care of it and asked for the colors (Landesfarben) on the flags at the respective state authorities around 1890 and compiled them. The Crown Land of Trieste used as colours of the country a flag which showed three horizontal stripes in red, white and red. The colors are taken from the shield. The coat of arms of Trieste showed a shield parted per fess until 1919: Above a black, crowned double eagle on gold (symbol of the Habsburg monarchy), below the Austrian colors of the Babenberg shield and a golden glaive.

Source: Österreichisch-Ungarische Wappenrolle, Flags of the World, Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms


Wappen blazon coat of arms Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest Herrschaft Triest Imperial Free City of Trieste Dominion of Trieste Trst
1464–1918,
Blazon of Trieste,
Source, by: Ströhl, Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns, 1890, via austria-forum.org


Wappen blazon coat of arms Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest Herrschaft Triest Imperial Free City of Trieste Dominion of Trieste Trst
ca.1890–1918,
Coat of arms of the Dominion of Trieste,
Source, by: Ströhl, Wappenrolle Österreich-Ungarns, 1890, via Wikipedia (IT)


Wappen blazon coat of arms Stadt Triest Triest City of Trieste Trst
1809–1813,
probable/unofficial coat of arms of Trieste,
Source, by: Wikipedia (IT)


Wappen blazon coat of arms Freistaat Triest City Freestate Free State of Trieste Trst
1947–1954,
Coat of arms of the Free State of Trieste,
Source, by: Wikipedia (IT)

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the crown land of Trieste showed a shield parted per fess until 1919: Above a black, crowned double eagle on gold (symbol of the Habsburg monarchy), below the Austrian colors of the Babenberg shield and a golden glaive. The golden glaive (a lily that was changed in the lower part) placed here on a lance shaft, actually represents the lance tip of St. Sergius, the patron saint of the city. The original of the lance tip belongs to the treasure of the Basilica of San Giusto and is considered to be unaffected by rust.

The coat of arms dates back to 1464, when Emperor Friedrich III. avarded the coat of arms in this form to the city. The coat of arms is described in detail in the respective patent, supplemented by the detail that from now on the lance tip should be made in golden color and not in natural iron color as before. As well is especially mentioned the right to display the coat of arms crowned with a golden crown. Even was was expressly granted the permission to transfer the image og the coat of arms to large and small seals, flags, banners, tents and pavilions, weapons and insignias of the city. The banner, which was resulted from the image of the coat of arms, was never used in practice.

From 1809 to 1813 the country belonged to France. There does not appear to have been an official change of the coat of arms of the city at this time, because it was not until 1819 that the coat of arms was confirmed again and unchanged by Emperor Franz I. 1852 that the coat of arms was unchanged confirmed again and by Emperor Franz Joseph I. However, in that law of Emperor Franz I., which laid down the designs of the coats of arms of the empire and the provinces, the lance tip was depicted as an overturned black anchor, which was even repeated in the similar law of Emperor Ferdinand I. The correction was made not until 1852, under Emperor Franz Joseph I.

After the annexation of the city and its surrounding territory by the Kingdom of Italy, the coat of arms was restored to the appearance it had before 1467 (silver lance tip in red field). This procedure was confirmed by a royal decree on 3rd of July 1930. This was applied analogously to the flag. The coat of arms of the city is wearing a golden wall crown since then (in the times before it was a golden leaf crown); it was omitted in the coat of arms of the free state.

Source: Österreichisch-Ungarische Wappenrolle, Wikipedia (IT), Volker Preuß

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Map of the crown lands of the Austrian-Illiric Littoral

Map ca. 1910:
Landkarte map Kronländer Küstenland crown lands Austrian-Illiric Littoral
Source: Volker Preuß

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The crown lands of Austria-Hungary (to 1918)

Map ca. 1910:
interaktive Landkarte – interactive Map
Source: Volker Preuß

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 36 square miles (1910), 33 square miles (nowadays)

Inhabitants: 230.000 inh. (1910), 204.300 (2018)

Density of Population: 6.270 inh./sq.mi. (1880), 6.262 inh./sq.mi. (2018)

Sprachen (1910): Italian, Slovanian, German

Currency: to 1919 Austria-Hungarian Currency, since 1954 Italian Currency

Time Zone: MEZ

Source: Wikipedia (D)

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History

ca. 2nd cent. B.C. · foundation of the Town of Tergeste by the Romans, to the Province of Italia

395 · at the partition of the Roman Empire today's Trieste comes to the West Roman Empire (Rome)

476–489 · Trieste belongs to the Empire of the Odoaker

489–553 · Trieste belongs to Empire of the Eastern Goth

553 · Trieste belongs to the East Roman Empire (Byzantium)

789 · the today's Trieste becomes subjected by the Frankish Empire of the Carolingians, and comes to the "Margraviate of Friaul"

934 · the Margraviate of Friaul comes to Bavaria

976 · the Margraviate of Friaul comes to the Duchy of Carinthia

ca. 1000 · Trieste comes in influence of the Patriarchate of Aquileia

1203 · Trieste is conquered by the City of Venice

1382 · Trieste takes position against Venice and betakes oneself under the protection of the Habsburg Margrave Leopold III. of Austria, Triest becomes afterward affiliated to the Duchy of Carniola and gradually an integral component of the Habsburg power and of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, not until the end of the 18th century Trieste comes to the Habsburg's Margraviate of Istria

1797–1809 · French Revolutionar Wars, parts of Austria (Styria) become occupied by the French in 1797

1809 · Peace of Vienna, Austria loses Salzburg, the Inn Quarter, Western Galicia and parts of Eastern Galicia and cedes Istria, Trieste, Gorizia, Carniola, Carinthia, Croatia, and Dalmatia to France, which were merged in 1810 to the French "Illyrian Provinces"

1813 · Austria declares war on France (Napoléon), Trieste is conquered back by Austria

1814/1815 · Congress of Vienna, realignment of Europe after the era Napoléon, the Empire of Austria (House of Habsburg) acquires back the in 1809 lost territories; Istria, Trieste, Gorizia, Carinthia and Carniola become merged to the Habsburg's Kingdom of Illyria, Dalmatia and Croatia become re-annexed to Hungary (under the Habsburgs, part of the Empire of Austria)

1848/1849 · revolution in Vienna, civil war between Hungarians and Croats, riotings in Prague, Mailand and Venice, as a result of that Emperor Ferdinand I. resigns and Franz Joseph I. of Habsburg becomes new Emperor, the riotings become suppressed and he enacts a new constitution: the titular hereditary territories of the Habsburgs in the Austrian Empire become converted to crown lands with their own Landtag (parliament), the Landtag of Dalmatia rejects the annexion to Croatia, the Kingdom of Dalmatia becomes an own crown land of the Austrian crown, Croatia and Slavonia become united to the "Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia", which remains as a subsidiary country under the Hungarian crown, dissolution of the Kingdom of Illyria: division in the crown lands of Carniola, Carinthia, Littoral, Croatia and Slavonia and Dalmatia

1861 · new Austrian constitution, the three components of the Littoral, Margraviate of Istria, Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca and the Imperial Free City of Trieste and its surrounding area, become own crown lands with their own parliaments, but under a common head of state, the governor of the Austrian-Illiric Littoral with his seat in Trieste

1914–1918 · First World War, thereafter breakdown of the imperial-royal monarchy, disintegration of Austria-Hungary in national states

10th of September 1919 · Treaty of Peace of Saint-Germain after the First World War, Austria has to cede Trieste to Italy, it becomes affiliated to Italy as "Provincia di Trieste"

1939–1945 · Second World War

13th of October 1943 · capitulation of Italy, as a result of that the German Empire occupys Trieste among other territories

1945 · Triest becomes occupied by Yugoslav partisans but abandoned by them after the march in of the Western Allies

1947 · seeing that the area of the City of Triest is disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia the Free State of Triest becomes established

1954 · the area of the Free State of Triest becomes partitioned between Italy and Yugoslavia (Slovenia and Croatia)

Source: Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D), World Statesmen, RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Discovery '97, Volker Preuß

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Historical Maps

ca. 1526
ca. 1526

1849
1849

1880
1880

1921
1921

1950
1950

2005
2005

Maps: Volker Preuß

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name "Trieste" has its roots in "Tergeste", the name of the town as this was established by the Romans in the 2nd century. However there must have been an Illyrian smallholding at this place, because "Tergeste" goes back to the Illyrian word "Terga", what means "market".

Source: Handbuch der geographischen Namen

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Further Austria pages (historical flags and coats of arms):

Empire of the Austrian Habsburgs (to 1804)

Empire of Austria (1814–1867)

Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)

Republic of Austria (since 1918)



 

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