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Armagnac

 

Contents

Flag

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Map of the historical Regions in France

Explanations about the Regions

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flag

Flagge Fahne flag drapeau Armagnac
Flag of Armagnac,
Source, by: Wikipedia (Fr)



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The flag of Armagnac is a scutcheon-flag, Its design is the image of that coat of arms, which has been used in the 14th/15th century.

Source: Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac
1140–1215, Armagnac,
Coat of arms of Armagnac – Blason du Armagnac,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac
1215–1304, Lomagne,
Coat of arms of Armagnac – Blason du Armagnac,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac Lomagne Armagnac Fézensac Rodez
1304–1497, Lomagne (Grafen/ Counts/ Comtés de Armagnac, Fézensac, Rodez),
Coat of arms of Armagnac – Blason du Armagnac,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac Lomagne Armagnac-Pardiac
1391–1497, Armagnac-Pardiac (Lomagne; Grafen/ Counts/ Comtés de Pardiac, Castres, La Marche),
Coat of arms of the House of Armagnac-Pardiac – Blason de Maison du Armagnac-Pardiac,
Source, by: Wikipedia (FR)


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac Alençon
1497–1525, Alençon,
Coat of arms of the House of Alençon – Blason de Maison du Alençon,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)


Wappen arms crest blason Armagnac de Bourbon
1525–1607, de Bourbon,
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon – Blason de Maison du Bourbon,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms, today known as the coat of arms of Armagnac, goes back to the 14th century. The crest is squared - four times divided - and the first and third field showed a red lion on silver, and the second and fourth field a golden, herelooking lion on red. It came into this form, when the Counts of Armagnac in 1304 acquired the County of Rodez, and their previous emblem, which showed a red lion on a silver, added by the heraldry of Rodez. As in 1391 the County of Pardiac was acquired, was added a blue collar tournament in the head of the shield. In 1497 Armagnac was inherited after the extinction of the House of Lomagne to the House of Alençon. For the line of Valois-Alençon, which began in 1297, when Charles II., son of Charles of Valois, was born, were fixed eight white balls on the red border as the special heraldic feature. The progenitor of the line of Valois, Prince Charles (1270–1325, son of King Philipp III.), Count of Valois, Anjou and Maine, took over the coat of arms from Prince John Tristan (1250–1270, Count of Valois, son of King Ludwig IX.). He surrounded the lily arms of the Capetians with a wide red border. In 1526 the county came to the Capetian House of Bourbon. The respective heraldry showed the blue, with golden lilies topped shield of the Capetians, which was covered with a red oblique-right bar. The coat of arms of the Capetians showed three golden lilies on blue, but originally was the coat of arms sprinkled with lilies. From 1365 (by others sources 1376), the number of lilies was reduced to three. The lily-symbol is very old, already the Germanic tribe of the Franks has used it.

Source: Heraldique Europeenne, Wikipedia (FR), Wikipedia (DE), Volker Preuß

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Map of the historical Regions in France

The historical, French Regions:

in black: governorate and province in 1776,
in red: former county, province oder governorate

Map: Volker Preuß

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Explanations about the Regions

The until the French Revolution existing provinces (or governorates) have been historically grown structures, which had their roots oftenly in former fiefdoms of the French crown, historic counties and duchies. They oftenly existed for hundreds of years and had preserved regionality (e.g. cultural particularities and regional languages). On the occasion of the French Revolution such phenomena were of course not desirable, and as part of their bloody and violent egalitarianism any regional references were eliminated. Shortly after the French Revolution the provinces were dissolved and France became divided into many départements, which should have approximately the same size and the same status. The départements were named after rivers or mountains, to use never and in no circumstances the name of an old province. However, there was no success in cutting the connections of the people of France to their respective regions, so that administrative regions were re-created in 1960, to have a better control in regional administrative processes. In this way became départements, which were placed in a historical province, administratively grouped to an oftenly historically named region. The resulted structures coincide only approximately with the boundaries of the old provinces. In the strictly centralist France any regionality is avoided, so that even the official flags of these regions mostly look like flags of companies, unloving, unhistorical, technocratic and modernistic, and these flags should not be a subject of any lexical considerations here. Only in a few of that regions, exist official flags which remember the historical models. But, even the existence of these today's regions is douptful, because in 2014 was passed a territorial reform valid from the year 2016, that reduces the number of the existing regions by merging to nearly the half. However, there exist unofficial flags in nearly all of these regions, which should remember the old provinces and the old heraldry.

Wikipedia Link to the regions of France: click or tap here
FOTW Link to the regions of France: click or tap here

Source: Flags of the World, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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History

antiquity · colonization by Iberian and Celtic tribes, the largest of them are the Volcae

52 B.C. · Roman conquest, forming the province of Aquitania in the west of Gaul

418 A.D. · the Visigoths be settled as federates, Aquitaine belongs to their sphere of influence

5th century A.D. · conquest of Gaul by the Franks (under King Clovis) to 507 conquest of Aquitaine, expansion of the empire to the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Alps

6th century · the Basques (Vascons) expand their influence in the northern Foothills of the Pyrenees and immigrate, they establish their Duchy of Vasconia (" Gascogne ") in southern Aquitaine

581 · Frankish dukes rule over the Duchy of Gascony

660 · Gascony is incorporated into the Duchy of Aquitaine

771 · Charlemagne takes over Aquitaine and transmits it later as a kingdom to his youngest son Louis the Pious, Charlemagne estblishes the County of Fézensac to counter the repeated revolts of the Basques against the rule of the Carolingians, the first mentioned Carolingian count is Leuthard of Paris (House of Matfriede)

819 · King Pepin I. of Aquitaine appoints Aznar Sanche to the Count of Gascony

836 · the County of Fézensac is owned again by the Basques, it belongs to the Basque Gascony and develops into its central part

848 · Count Sanche Mitarrat calls himself a Duke

880 · by the division of the Frankish Empire (Treaties of Verdun and Ribbemont) arises the West Frankish Kingdom (later France), the East Frankish Kingdom (later German Empire), the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Upper Burgundy (under Rudolf the Welf) and the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy persists

920 · death of Garcia Sanchez le Tors, the heritage (the duchy of Gascony) is divided among his three sons, the majority of Gascony comes to Sancho III., the Counties of Astarac and Fézensac come to the other brothers – after the death of William Garcia (960), Count of Fézensac, the county is divided among the sons, the elder son Othon receives the county Fézensac, his younger brother Bernard le Louche receives the by the division newly created County of Armagnac

950 · Aquitaine includes now the counties of Gascony, Armagnac, Fézensac, Périgord, Poitou, Angoulême and La Marche

1140 · Count Geraud III. of Armagnac unites his county with the County of Fézensac because he had remained without a male heir

1182 · death of the last count of Armagnac and Fézensac, the first house of the Counts of Armagnac extincts in this way, the legacy goes to the Bernard I. (House of Lomagne) which goes back of Mascarose on Armagnac, a daughter of Geraud III.

1224 · King Louis VIII. of France, son of Philip Augustus, conquers Aquitaine, except Gascony the last possession of the Plantagenets in France, Poitou and Saintonge come directly to the crown, La Marche, Périgord, Angoulême and Auvergne become fiefs

1259 · Treaty of Paris (Abbeville), King Henry III. of England recognizes the loss of Aquitaine, and receives in this way the Saintonge, which is united with Gascony to the Duchy of Guyenne, as fief

1304 · the Counts of Armagnac and Fézensac purchase the County of Rodez

1328 · death of King Charles IV. (the Fair), extinction of the direct Capetian line, according to Salic Law Count Philip of Valois (Son of Prince Charles of Valois, first cousin of King Charles IV.) came on the French throne (as King Philip VI .), the English king Edward III. lays claim to the throne as a maternal nephew of Charles IV., reason for the "Hundred Years War" (Anglo-French War, 1338–1453), out of the House of Valois came all kings of France from 1328 to 1589

1402 · death of Jean II., Count of Armagnac and Fézensac and Count of Pardiac, his cousin Bernard VII. of Armagnac takes possession of the county

1453 · Battle of Castillon, the end of the Hundred Years War, the Kings of England have to cede all their possessions in France, in this way the Guyenne comes finally to France, the country is connected to the royal domain, later establish of the governorate (province) of Aquitaine, to which the Guyenne belongs as a province

1473 · death of Count Jean V. after fights against King Louis XI. of France

1497 · extinction of the second house of Armagnac (House Lomagne), the county comes to Charles IV. of Alençon

1526 · Marguerite d'Angouleme, widow of Charles IV. of Alençon, marries Henri II. d'Albret  King of Navarre (House of Bourbon)

1589 · death of Henry III., King of France, Henry III. had no descendants, extinction of the line of Valois, Henry III. determined Henry of Navarre (House of Bourbon) as his successor, which is as Henry IV., the Good, Henri le Bon, the new King of France

1607 · the county is part of the royal domain and comes to the province of Aquitaine

1776 · the already in the 14th century created governorates of the civil administration of the kingdom of France become committed to a number of 39, and correspond in this way to the number of provinces, in previous years could any provinces be summarized in one governorate

1789 · French Revolution, the governorates and provinces become abolished, Aquitaine is divided into departments (approximately: Gironde, Dordogne, Lot, Aveyron, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Gers, Hautes-Pyrenees and Haute-Garonne)

1960 · reintroduction of regions in France, forming the Aquitaine region (capital Bordeaux), but not within the historic boundaries, just by integrating of the departments of Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Source: Wikipedia (D), Brockhaus Konversationslexikon

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Origin of the Country's Name

The geographical names Armagnac and Fézensac are of Basque-Occitan origin and difficult to explain. Supposedly, however, the name Armagnac should be an old family name, after that the area was named.

Source: Handbuch der geographischen Namen, Volker Preuß

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