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Finland

 

Contents

Flags

Historical Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Aircraft Roundel

• Regional Flags
Åland Islands

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi National flag Merchant flag national merchant flag
National and merchant flag,
ratio = 11:18,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi State flag state flag
State flag,
ratio = 11:18,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Naval flag naval flag
Naval flag,
ratio = 11:19,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Naval jack naval jack
Naval jack,
ratio = 1:1,
Source, by: FOTW





Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Lotsen pilot's vessels Handelsschifffahrt
1.) Differentiational flag for pilot's vessels,
2.) Flag of the Merchant Shipping Bureau,
ratio = 11:18,
Source, by: Die Welt im bunten Flaggenbild




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Präsident President
Flag of the President,
ratio = 11:19,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Verteidigungsminister Minister of Defense
Flag of the Minister of Defense,
ratio = 11:19,
Source, by: FOTW




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Befehlshaber Verteidigungskräfte Commander of the Defence Forces
Flag of the Commander of the Defence Forces,
ratio = 11:19,
Source, by: FOTW




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi Befehlshaber der Marine Commander of the Navy
Flag of the Commander of the Navy,
ratio = 11:19,
Source, by: FOTW



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Historical Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
1809-1821,
Merchant flag,
Source, by: FOTW




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
December 1917 – May 1918,
Merchant flag,
Source, by: FOTW




Flagge Fahne flag Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
December 1917 – May 1918,
State flag,
Source, by: FOTW



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The Finnish flag shows on white ground a blue Scandinavian Cross, what means a cross which is to the pole-site. All Scandinavian countries use as a sign for relationship and togetherness such a cross in their flags. It is called by the Finns "Siniristilippu" what means "Blue Cross Flag". The flag was introduced by law on the 29th of May in 1918 (other sources mean the 12th of February in 1920). On 26th of May in 1978 some changes had been established by law for the last time. The colours, are given for the flag: blue = pt 294, red = pt 186, yellow = pt 123. About the origin of the flag, there are different statements. It was created in the second half of the 19th century. As the creators of the flag on one hand are called the artists Eero Snellman and Bruno Tuukkanen, but then - on the other hand - the poet Sakari Topelius, who has submitted a draft in 1862, and declared in 1870 that the colors symbolize the snow and the lakes of Finland. The proportions of the flag are to calculate as follows (Thanks to Heikki Kauppi): length: 18 = white 5 + blue 3 + white 10, height 11: = white: 4 + blue 3 + white 4.

Source: Flaggen Wappen Hymnen, Wikipedia (D), Die Welt der Flaggen, Alle Flaggen alle Staaten

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
Coat of arms of Finland,
Source, by: Corel Draw 4

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The finnish coat of arms appears in all official flags and even on the the naval jack. The momentary flag from 1918 was even a scutcheon-flag. The lion scutcheon goes back to the tomb of the Swedish king Gustav I. from the house and dynasty of Wasa (*1496–†1560). The in this way Swedish heraldry comes from this fact, that Finland between 1249 and 1809 belonged to Sweden. The scattered nine silvery roses on the red blazon stand for the nine historical provinces of the country.

Source: Flaggen Wappen Hymnen

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Aircraft Roundel

Flugzeugkokarde Kokarde aircraft roundel kockade Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
since 1945,
Aircraft Roundel,
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)

Flugzeugkokarde Kokarde aircraft roundel kockade Finnland Finland Suomen Tasavalta Suomi
1918–1945,
Aircraft Roundel,
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)

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Map

Location:

Source: CIA World Factbook

Map of the country:

Source: CIA World Factbook

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 130.681 square miles

Inhabitants: 5.536.146 (2020), thereof 88% Finns, 5% Swedes, 1% Russians, 0,13% Sami (Lapps), even ca. 3500 Germans

Religions: 68% Protestant, 1% Orthodox, 0,15% Roman Catholic

Density of Population: 42 inh./sq.mi.

Capital: Helsinki (Helsingfors), 648.042 inh. (2018)

official Languages: Finnish, Swedish

other Languages: Sami (Lappic), Russian

Currency: 1 Euro (€) = 100 Cent

Time Zone: GMT + 2 h

Source: Wikipedia (D), Deutsche im Ausland

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History

2nd century · immigration of the Finns in the initial Swedish-Russian settlement area

1249 · crusade of the Swedes against the Finns

1323 · treaty of Paehkinaesaari: Finland becomes officially a part of Sweden, many Swedes immigrate

1714–1721 · Nordic War, Finland is occupied by the Russians

1721 · Sweden cedes Ingermanland (South East Finnland), Estland, Livland and parts of Karelia (East Finnland) to Russia

1809 · treaty of Fredrikhamn: Sweden cedes Finland to Russia, Finland becomes a grand principality with a relative big autonomy

1812 · Helsinki becomes capital

1863 · Finnish becomes official language beside Swedish

1865 · the Great Principality of Finland introduces his own currency

1899 · strengthen russification

1900 · introduction of Russian as official language

1901 · dissolution of the Finnish army by Russia

1905 · successful anti-Russian general strike, concessions to the Finns

1906 · parliamentary reform

6th of December in 1917 · Lenin's coup d'état in Russia enables Finland the declaration of independence

1918 · victorious civil war of the government against bolshevistic gangs

1919 · Finland becomes a republic

1920 · treaty of Dorpat: the Soviet Union recognizes Finland's borders

1921 · London conference: the Aaland Islands come to Finland

1930 · the "farmer's march" (Lappo Movement) coerces the political disconnection of the communists

1939 · invasion of the Soviet Army, powerful Finnish resistance

1940 · treaty of Moscow: Finland loses 10% of his territory to the Soviet Union

1941 · Finnish troops attack the Soviet Union for re-purchase of the lost territories

1944 · invasion Soviet Army, armistice

1947 · peace of Paris: acceptance of the frontier of 1940 by Finland

1948 · "friendship treaty" with the Soviet Union

1989 · the Soviet Union recognizes the neutrality of Finland

Source: Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D), World Statesmen, RetroLib Retrobibliothek, Discovery '97, Weltgeschichte

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name of the country as "Finland" can be literally translated as "Wetlands", because this term goes back to the Old High German word for "swamp" what "fenni" means. But the Finns themselves call their country "Suomi", which goes back to the proper name of the Finns "Suomalaiset". The origin of this name is not known, but has probably something to do with the "Sami" (Lapps) in northern Scandinavia.

Source: Atlas der wahren Namen, Wikipedia (D)

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