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Estonia

 

Contents

Flags

Historical Flags

• regional Flags
Livonia

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Historical Coats of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Aircraft Roundel

Map

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name

Map of the today's Balticum

Maps about the History of the Balticum



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia National flag Merchant flag merchant national
National and merchant flag,
ratio = 5:8,
Source, by: Flaggen-Atlas Erde




Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia naval Naval flag
Naval flag,
ratio = 1:2,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)




Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia Naval jack Jack naval
Naval jack,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Wikipedia (DE)




Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia Grenzschutz border patrol
Flag of the border patrol,
ratio = 5:8,
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia Präsident president
Flag of the president,
ratio = 5:8,
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Estlands Estonia Verteidigungsminister minister of defense
Flag of the minister of defense,
ratio = 5:8,
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Estland Estonia Oberbefehlshaber commander in chief
Flag of the commander in chief,
ratio = 5:8,
Source, by: Flags of the World



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Historical Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Schwertbrüderorden livonian order
1230–1237,
flag of the Order of the Sword Brothers (Livonian Order)




Flagge Fahne flag Deutscher Orden Teutonic Knights
1237–1561,
Flag of the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights)




Flagge Fahne flag Estnische Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik Estonian Socialist Soviet Republic
1940, 1944–1953,
Flag of the Estonian Socialist Soviet Republic,
ratio = 1:2,
Source, by: World Statesmen




Flagge Fahne flag Estnische Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik Estonian Socialist Soviet Republic
1953–1991,
Flag of the Estonian Socialist Soviet Republic,
ratio = 1:2,
Source, by: World Statesmen



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was initially the flag of a scholar fellowship, and was hoisted up for the first time in the year 1881, and finally banned in 1896. In context with the achievement of the independence from Russia the flag was re-introduced in the year 1917, and confirmed with the constitution from the 4th of July in 1920.

There are many theories to explain the meaning of the colours:
1.) The blue stands for loyalty and trust, the black for the ancestors and the past and the white for the snow and the future. Source: Flaggen-Atlas Erde;
2.) These are the colours of the Finnish fraternal people, blue and white, supplemented by black to remind of the dark time of serfdom. Source: unknown;
3.) Blue stands for the sky, black for the land and white for the snow. Source: Flaggen und Wappen der Welt;
4.) Blue stands for loyalty, the sky, the sea and the lakes, black for the oppression in the past, the soil of the country and is the traditional color of the jackets of the farm workers, white stands for the struggle for freedom, virtue, snow and is the colour of the birch bark. Source: Nationalflaggen der Welt.

In the years of the soviet occupation (1940 and 1944–1990) was in use until 1953 a single colour red flag, on it hammer, sickle and the initials of the country in gold. In the year 1953 was introduced a new soviet flag, which was officialliy in use even until 1991, although the old flag was already allowed since 1988. By the Estonian historian Indrek Kiverik was detected, that international and partial even in Estonia, is in use a much to dark blue at the styling of the estonian flag. The representation in the Flag-Encyclopaedia was amended from there. Here is a Link to the Estonian Reich Chancery, where the coloring of the flag is given in the parameters of the CMYK-spectrum. (=> click here)

Source: Flaggen-Atlas Erde, Alle Flaggen alle Staaten

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Estland Estonia
Coat of arms of Estonia,
Source: Riigikantselei, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

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Historical Coats of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Wappenschild Schwertbrüderorden Livonian Order
1230–1237,
Blazon of the Order of the Sword Brothers (Livonian Order),
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)


Wappen coat of arms Wappenschild Schwertbrüderorden Livonian Order
1237–1561,
Blazon of the Teutonic Order (Teutonic Knights),
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)


Wappen coat of arms Wappen coat of arms Livland Livonia
1629–1721,
Coat of arms of Livonia,
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of Estonia descents from the year 1918 and shows a golden shield with three among themselves grouped lions, surrounded by oak twigs. It is originally the coat of arms of the town Reval (Tallin), which is borrowed again from the coat of arms of the state Denmark. In the times where Estonia belonged to the Soviet Union was in use a soviet model, which equals the coat of arms of the Soviet Union. In 1989 they re-introduced the coat of arms of 1918. During the Second World War – in the time of the German occupation between 1941 and 1944 – Estonia officially had no own national emblems. It belonged to the Empire's Commissionership of Ostland, in which have been summarized the countries of the Balticum and parts of the today's northwest of White Russia (Belarus). The Estonain Legion, which voluntary fought on the side of the German Empire against the Soviet Union in the Second World War used as sleeve-insignia a golden shield with three black lions and above them the name of the country.

Source: Flaggen-Atlas Erde, Alle Flaggen alle Staaten, Avantgarde für Europa

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Aircraft Roundel

Flugzeugkokarde Kokarde aircraft roundel kockade Estland Estonia
Aircraft Roundel,
Source, by: Wikipedia (EN)

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Map

Location:

Source: CIA World Factbook

Map of the country:

Source: CIA World Factbook

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 17.505 km²

Inhabitants: 1.323.824 (2019), thereof 69% Estonians, 25% Russians, 3,8 % Ukrainians, White Russians (Belarusians), Finns, Tatars, Latvians, Poles, Jews, Lithuanians, and also 0,1% Germans

Religions: 13,6% Protestant, 12,8% Orthodox, 60% Non-Religious

Density of Population: 76 inh./sq.mi.

Capital: Tallinn (Reval), 434.562 inh. (2019)

official Language: Estonian

other Languages: Russian

Currency from 1st of January 2011: 1 Euro (€) = 100 Cent

Currency to 31st of December 201: 1 Estonian Crown (ekr) = 100 Senti

Time Zone: GMT +2 h

Source: Wikipedia (D)

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History

2000 B.C. · settlement of the today's Estonia by the Estonians

1202 · establishment of the "Order of the Sword Brothers" in Duenamuende (today's Latvia)

1202–1230 · conquest of Courland, Livonia, Lettgallia, Semigallia and the southern Estonia by the Order of the Livonian Order, the northern Estonia becomes subjected by the Danish King Waldemar II.

1236 · defeat of the Order of the Sword Brothers against the Lithuanians

1237 · unification of the Order of the Sword Brothers with the Teutonic Order, Courland, Livonia, Lettgallia, Semigallia and the southern Estonia come as Livonian Federation with an own Master to the State of the Teutonic Order

1346 · the northern Estonia gets purchased by the Teutonic Order from Denmark and incorporated to the Livonian Federation of the Teutonic Order

1558–1595 · Livonian War, the Livonian Master of the Teutonic Order transforms Courland and Semigallia in a duchy as a Polish enfeoffment, Estonia becomes ceded to Sweden and partially to Denmark, Livonia and Lettgallia come directly to Poland

1621 · Sweden conquers Livonia

1629 · Livonia comes officially to Sweden

1710 · Nordic War, Russia conquers Livonia

1721 · Peace of Nystad, Livonia and Estonia come to Russia, Courland, Semigallia and Lettgallia remain at Poland, Estonia becomes an own Russian gouvernement (consists of the northern former Swedish part of Estonia)

1914–1918 · First World War: 1918 the German Empire conquers Livonia and Estonia

7th of November 1917 · bolshevist revolution in Russia, seizure of power by the Soviets

24th of February 1918 · Estonia declares its independence, the state of Estonia includes now the old Gouvernement of Estonia inclusive the north of Livonia

3rd of March 1918 · Russia capitulates towards the German Empire, Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, recognition of the Estonian state by Soviet Russia

1924 · suppression of a communist coup d'état

23rd of August 1939 · German-Soviet non aggression pact, Estonia becomes a soviet sphere of interest and gets occupied by the Soviet Union

21st of July 1940 · proclamation of the Estonian Socialistic Soviet Republic (ESSR)

6th of August 1940 · inclusion of the ESSR into the Soviet Union, deportation of thousands of inhabitants

1939–1945 · Second World War: June/July 1941 conquest of Estonia by German troops, Estonia comes to the empire`s commissionership of Ostland, 20.000 Estonians fight voluntary in a Estonian Legion on the side of the German Empire against the Soviet Union, December 1944 conquest of Estonia by soviet troops, Estonia becomes once more ESSR and incorporated into the Soviet Union again, forcible russification, deportation of thousands of Estonians to Sibiria

1945–1988 · enforced immigration of Russians

1988 · nascence of the autonomy movement

30th of March in 1990 · proclamation of independence

1991 · the Soviet Union recognizes the independence of Estonia

1992 · new constitution

1994 · withdrawal of the Russian troops

2004 · Estonia becomes a member in the European Union

Source: Atlas zur Geschichte, Wikipedia (D), Avantgarde für Europa

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Origin of the Country's Name

The name "Estonia" has its roots in the people of the "Estonians". They name themselves "Eestlased", what descents from the word "Aueist" and means "Coastal Residents".

Source: Die Völker der Erde, Atlas der wahren Namen

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Map of the today's Balticum

Das Baltikum
Source: Volker Preuß

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Maps about the History of the Balticum

ca. 1410
1410–1561

1561 - 1621
1561–1621

1621 - 1721
1621–1721

1721 - 1772
1721–1772

1815 - 1918
1815–1918

seit/since 1991
since 1991

Source: Volker Preuß

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