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Austria-Hungary

 

Contents

Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Map of Austria-Hungary

Numbers and Facts

Crown Lands



Further Austria pages (historical Flags and Coats of Arms):

Empire of the Austrian Habsburgs (to 1804)

Empire of Austria (1814–1867)

Republic of Austria (since 1918)



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs National flag national flag
1869–1918,
Compromise flag (national flag),
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: commons.wikimedia.org




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs National flag national flag
1867–1918,
National flag (unofficial),
ratio = 2:3
Source, by: Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Merchant flag merchant flag
1869–1918,
Merchant flag,
ratio = 2:3
decided by law,
Source, by: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Merchant flag merchant flag
1869–1918,
Merchant flag,
ratio = 2:3
used in practic,
Source, by: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs War flag naval and war flag
1867–1894
Naval and war flag,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: austria-forum.org, zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs War flag naval and war flag
1894–1915
Naval and war flag,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Flaggenbuch, Reichs-Marine-Amt, Berlin, 1905, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs War flag naval and war flag
1915–1918
Naval and war flag,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Lothar Baumgartner, Wien, 1977, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Naval jack naval jack
1894–1915,
Naval jack,
ratio = 4:5,
Source, by: Flaggenbuch, Reichs-Marine-Amt, Berlin, 1905, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Naval jack naval jack
1915–1918,
Naval jack,
ratio = 4:5,
Source, by: Lothar Baumgartner, Wien, 1977, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Lotsenrufflagge Lotsenflagge Lotse pilot flag
ca. 1870,
Pilot flag (signal for a pilot),
Source, by: "Maritime Flags of All Nations" flag chart, around 1870's, via zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Lotsenrufflagge Lotsenflagge Lotse pilot flag
ca. 1880,
Pilot flag (signal for a pilot),
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Ströhl: "Oest.-Ung. Wappenrolle", Schroll, Wien, 1895, via zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Lotsenrufflagge Lotsenflagge Lotse pilot flag
1869–ca.1900,
Pilot flag (signal for a pilot),
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Ströhl: Dienst-Flaggen und Standarten der k.u.k. Kriegs-Marine, Wien, 1896, via zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Lotsenrufflagge Lotsenflagge Lotse pilot flag
ca.1900–1918,
Pilot flag (signal for a pilot),
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Ströhl: "Oest.-Ung. Wappenrolle", Schroll, Wien, 1895, via zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Königreich Ungarn Kingdom of Hungary
1867–1908,
Kingdom of Hungary,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)




Flagge Fahne flag Königreich Ungarn Kingdom of Hungary
1908–1918,
Kingdom of Hungary,
ratio = 2:3,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)



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Personal and rank Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Österreich Kaiserreich Österreich Empire Austria Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Kaiser emperor
1867–1894,
Flag (standard) of the Emperor,
Source, by: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte Kaiser König standard Emperor King
1894–1915,
Flag (standard) of the Emperor,
Source, by: Verordnung Nr.9, 11.01.1895, P.K./M.S. Nr. 2978 ex 1894, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr, Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte Kaiserin Königin standard Empress Queen
1894–1915,
Flag (standard) of the Empress,
Source, by: Verordnung Nr.9, 11.01.1895, P.K./M.S. Nr. 2978 ex 1894, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr, Flags of the World




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte Kaiser König standard Emperor King
1894–1915,
Flag (standard) of the Emperor,
Source, by: L. Baumgartner: Die Entw. der österr. Naval flag, Wien, 1977 pp. 33-34, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr, Flags of the World, portalestoria.net




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte Feldmarschall Field Marshal Marineminister standard Secretary of Navy
1894–1915,
Standard of a Field Marshal,
ratio = 13:15,
Source, by: Kundmachung Nr.28 vom 06.03.1869, Reichsgesetzblatt, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte standard Admiral
1894–1915,
Standard of an Admiral,
ratio = 13:15,
Source, by: Kundmachung Nr.28 vom 06.03.1869, Reichsgesetzblatt, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte standard Vize-Admiral Vize Admiral Vice Admiral
1894–1915,
Standard of an Vice Admiral,
ratio = 13:15,
Source, by: Kundmachung Nr.28 vom 06.03.1869, Reichsgesetzblatt, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr




Flagge Fahne flag Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs Standarte standard Konter-Admiral Konter Admiral Konteradmiral Rear Admiral
1894–1915,
Standard of an Rear Admiral,
ratio = 13:15,
Source, by: Kundmachung Nr.28 vom 06.03.1869, Reichsgesetzblatt, via: zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr



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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

After the compromise with Hungary on the 8th of February in 1867 (the country was named now Austria-Hungary) were introduced some complete new flags on 1st of August in 1869. Those combined Austrian with Hungarian heraldry. The flag of the Kingdom of Hungary was not recognized internationally. Nevertheless it was e.g. used by ships on the Danube River (Donau) as long as they were in the area of the Kingdom of Hungary.

The national flag and the merchant flag were practically divided into two parts, on the left the colors of Austria red, white and red, on the right the colors of Hungary red, white and green. The merchant flag also showed the coats of arms of the two parts of the country in the their middle of the flag. However, the national flag was practically not used, the German-speaking population preferred to use the black and gold striped flag and the Hungarians used the red, white and green Hungarian flag.

The naval flag of the Austrian Empire was adopted for Austria-Hungary and remained unchanged until 1894. In that year, the crowned coat of arms was changed in details. The crown was more stylized and the number of pearls was limited to 18. So each pearl represented a crown land. This change was also made to all other flags that bore this coat of arms, e.g. merchant flag, naval jack and pilot flag (signal for a pilot).

In 1894 the flag of the emperor was also changed. Among other things, on the eagle were placed the coats of arms of the most important crown lands, like in the middle coat of arms. The edge of the flag with the characteristic colored triangles is no longer in flamed design. In addition, the flag was topped with crowns to allow a distinction between the flags of the Emperor, the Empress and the Princes, by the number of the placed crowns.

In 1915, during the First World War, Emperor Franz Joseph I. introduced a new coat of arms and changed some flags significantly. Because Franz Joseph I. died in 1916, the project was no longer consistently pursued by the new Emperor Karl Franz Joseph. Due to the war the previous flags were in practice often retained.

In this way Emperor Franz Joseph I. introduced a new naval and war flag. It still showed three stripes in red, white and red, with the crowned coat of arms of Austria on the white stripe. The crown was now the house crown of the Habsburgs. In addition, the coat of arms of Hungary was added, namely the Arpad shield from the period before the 18th century with eight red and white stripes, with the Hungarian crown of St. Stephen above it. The naval jack was also modified in this way. In practice, the previous flag was often retained due to the war.

Emperor Franz Joseph I. also introduced a new imperial standard. It had a completely new design. It was purple in color and had a striking border with triangles in the colors black, gold, red, white and green, the colors of Austria and Hungary. In the middle it showed the coat of arms of the Habsburgs with the crowns of the Habsburgs and Hungary, surrounded by the chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece. All other personal rank flags and standards (field marshal, admirals) have also been changed. Black and gold were dispensed with, red-white-red dominated and much was simplified. Due to the war, the previous flags were often retained in practice.

Source: austria-forum.org, zeljko-heimer-fame.from.hr, Flags of the World, Volker Preuß

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Österreich-Ungarn Austria-Hungary Kaiserreich Österreich Empire Austria Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs
1836–1915,
Lesser coat of arms of Austria-Hungary,
Source, by: Flags of the World


Wappen coat of arms Österreich-Ungarn Austria-Hungary Kaiserreich Österreich Empire Austria Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs
1915–1918,
Lesser coat of arms of Austria,
Source, by: Flags of the World


Wappen coat of arms Habsburg-Lothringen Habsburg-Lorraine Kaiserreich Österreich Empire Austria Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs
1866–1915,
Middle coat of arms of Austria-Hungary,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)


Wappen coat of arms Königreich Ungarn Kingdom of Hungary
1869–1915,
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hungary,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D)


Wappen coat of arms Kaiserreich Österreich-Ungarn Empire Austria-Hungary Habsburg Habsburger Habsburgs
1915–1918,
Coat of arms of Austria-Hungary,
Source, by: Flags of the World

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The House of Habsburg divided in 1556 in a Spanish and in an Austrian line. Both lines used the black double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation (Old German Empire, First Empire) for centuries. In the year 1836 was created a new coat of arms for the Austrian line of the Habsburg monarchy and finally renewed in 1866. It showed as lesser coat of arms a threefold crowned twin-headed eagle with the Habsburg-Lothringian coat of arms as chest or heart shield. The chest-shield was surrounded by the collane of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In the catches the eagle held sword, scepter and the imperial orb.

The middle coat of arms showed a threefold crowned twin-headed eagle with the Habsburg-Lothringian coat of arms as chest or heart shield. On the chest shield hung the three highest merit orders. Around the chest-shield are arranged crowned shields with the coats of arms of the crown lands. The chest-shield was surrounded by the collane of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Those changed sometimes in the years ever by the number of the crown lands, at least in 1866. In the catches held the eagle sword, scepter and the imperial orb.

In 1915, during the First World War, Emperor Franz Joseph I. introduced a new coat of arms for Austria-Hungary and for both halves of the empire. In the Austrian coat of arms the coats of arms of the crown lands were directly included in the heart shield (chest shield), and in the Hungarian coat of arms were directly included the so-called neighboring countries (Nebenländer). The new coat of arms of Austria-Hungary was a common coat of arms. It showed the coats of arms like established in both parts of the country with their crowns and two shield holders (supporters). Below appeared a banner with the motto "INDIVISIBILITER AC INSEPARABILITER" => "indivisible and inseparable". Because Franz Joseph I. died in 1916, the project was no longer consistently pursued by the new emperor Karl Franz Joseph due to the war, and in practice the coats of arms were often retained.

Source: Flags of the World, Wikipedia (D), Volker Preuß

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Map

Crown Lands of Austria-Hungary, ca. 1910:
interaktive Landkarte – interactive Map
Source: Volker Preuß

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 260.990 square miles

Inhabitants: 51.356.500 (1910), among them Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Ukrainians

Religions: 77% Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant, 9% Orthodox, 4% Jewish, 1% Muslim

Density of Population: 197 inh./sq.mi. (1910)

Hauptstädte: Vienna and Budapest

official Languagen: German and Hungarian

other Languages: Czech, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Ruthenian, ...

Currency to 1892/1900: 1 Taler (Vereinstaler) = 1,5 Gulden = 150 Neukreuzer

Currency from 1892/1900: 1 Krone = 100 Heller

Source: Wikipedia (D)

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Austrian Crown Lands

Status ca. 1910:

Carinthia (Kärnten)

Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)

Salzburg

Styria (Steiermark)

Tyrol

Carniola (Krain)

Austrian Illyrian Coast Land (Küstenland)

Bohemia (Böhmen)

Moravia (Mähren)

Silesia (Schlesien)

Galicia (Galizien)

Bukovina

Dalmatia

Hungarian "neighboring countries" (Nebenländer)

Status ca. 1910:

Croatia (Kroatien)

Slavonia

Transylvania (Siebenbürgen)

Fiume (Szentvit, St. Veit, Rijeka)

• Dalmatia

Imperial Country

Bosnia

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History

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