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Germany

 

Contents

Flags

historical Flags of FRG

historical German Flags

Meaning/Origin of the Flag

regional Flags

Coat of Arms

Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

Seal

Aircraft Roundel

Cockade

Maps

Federal Countries

Numbers and Facts

History

Origin of the Country's Name

The German national anthem



Flags

Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Bundesflagge Handelsflagge
Federal and merchant flag,
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: Corel Draw 4




Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Bundesdienstflagge Dienstflagge official flag
Official flag (state flag),
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: Flaggen und Wappen,
→ wichtiger Hinweis


Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Marineflagge Gösch jack
Naval flag and jack,
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: Flaggen und Wappen




Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Präsidentenflagge Flagge Bundespräsident President
Standard of the President,
ratio = 1:1,
Source, by: Flaggen und Wappen




Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Admiral
Flag of an Admiral,
Source, by: Flags of the World


Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Vizeadmiral vice admiral
Flag of a Vice Admiral,
Source, by: Flags of the World


Flagge Fahne flag Deutschland Germany Konteradmiral rear admiral
Flag of a Rear Admiral,
Source, by: Flags of the World

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historical Flags of FRG

Flagge Fahne flag Deutsche Bundespost German Federal Post Office
1950–1994,
Postal flag, Info about the theme postal flag ← click or tap here
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: Jürgen Kaltschmitt




Signalflagge Postsignalflagge Wimpel Pennant Stander Flagge Fahne flag Deutsche Bundespost German Federal Post Office
1951-1990,
Postal signal flag
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: By Fornax [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons




Flagge Fahne flag Olympia DDR GDR Ostdeutschland East Germany FRG BRD Deutschland Germany
1960–1968,
Olympic flag, Info about the theme olympic flag ← click or tap here
ratio = 3:5,
Source, by: Flags of the World, Corel Draw 4




Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "postal flags".

Postflagge postal flag

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historical German Flags

German Empire, 1st empire (800–1806)

Rhine Confederation (1806–1813)

German Confederation (1815–1866)

North German Confederation (1867–1871)

German Empire, 2nd empire (1871–1919)

   – Federal countries of the German Empire

   – German colonies

   – The provinces of Prussia

German Empire, Weimar Republic (1919–1933)

German Empire, 3rd empire (1933–1945)

Germany (1945–1949)

German Democratic Republic (1949–1990)

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Meaning/Origin of the Flag

The black-red-golden flag of the today's Germany was after the war indeed unofficially and in single German countries in use, however officially introduced not until the 23rd of May in 1949, and adoped on 7th of September in 1949 for the Federal Republic of Germany. In the basic law of the 23rd of May in 1949 is written about that in article 22: "The federal flag is black-red-gold." On 7th of June in 1950, the Federal President, the Federal Chancellor and the Minister of the Interior of the FRG issued the "Order on the German Flags". The official flags showed not the coat of arms of the state in their center, but the so-called federal shield. The representation of the eagle in the federal shield differed from that in the national coat of arms.

The today's coat of arms was re-introduced on 20th of January in 1950, after it was already use between 1919 and 1935. It goes back to the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire: black eagle with red armaments on a golden shield. The heraldry of the FRG continues the traditions of the German Empire between the years 1918 and 1933 (the so named "Weimar Republic").

Nascence and origin of the black-red-golden flag ← click ot tap here

Between 1956 and 1964, the GDR and the FRG had a joint Olympic team, and between 1960 and 1968 even a joint Olympic flag. In Sydney (1956) the joint Olympic team marched in, still under the black-red-golden flag. In Rome (1960) and Tokyo (1964), the black-red-golden flag was used with white Olympic rings in the middle. In Mexico City (1968) there were already two separate German teams who marched separately into the Olympic Stadium, but each of the two teams marched in under the black-red-golden flag with the white Olympic rings in the middle.

A special form of flags are the banners, long-stretched flags, which are frequently fixed on a narrow crossbar. Informations about German banners and banner flags ← click ot tap here

Source: Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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regional Flags

Northern Friesland

Eastern Friesland

Country of Wursten

Dithmarschen

Heligoland

Fehmarn Island

Ruegen Island

The Sorbs

Franconia

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Coat of Arms


Wappen coat of arms Deutschland Germany BRD FRG
Coat of arms of Germany,
Source, by: Corel Draw 4

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Meaning/Origin of the Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of Germany shows a red armed black eagle on golden ground. It is a very old symbol, which also goes back to the Teutons and even back to military field signs of the Roman legions. These have consisted in a vertical hold-stick, and on its upper end was fixed a crossbar. On this crossbar sat an eagle. The coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation showed a black eagle in a golden field. Since the Middle Ages, the German imperial eagle has a natural model: the stone eagle (Aquila Chrysaetos).

The origin of the eagle ← please read here.

The design goes back to the coat of arms of the German Empire, used from 1928 to 1935. The image of the eagle was already popular at the Roman emperors, and it appears in the middle ages except of the empire's flag even on German coins, to symbolize even there the continue of the Roman emperorship.

Nascence and origin of the color red in the imperial eagle ← please read here

The colours, the flag, the coat of arms and the anthem of the FRG or one of its countries is protected against defamation by § 90a para. 1 no. 2 StGB (criminal code).

Source: Volker Preuß, Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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Seal


Siegel seal Deutsches Reich Weimarer Republik German Empire Weimar Republic

from 1950,
The seal and lesser coat of arms of the FRG,
Source, by: Wikipedia (D), Jürgen Kaltschmitt

The seal was created by the artist Sigmund von Weech in 1921, and officially introduced for the German Empire in 1922, with the "Decree on the Seals". It was used until 1935, then abolished. After the Second World War it was adopted again in 1950 for the Federal Republic of Germany.

Source, by: Wikipedia (D), Jürgen Kaltschmitt

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Aircraft Roundel


Flugzeugkokarde aircraft roundel Deutschland Germany BRD FRG

Aircraft Roundel of the FRG,
Source: Wikipedia (EN)

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Cockade


Mützenkokarde Kokarde cockade Deutschland Germany BRD FRG

Source: Wikipedia (D)

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Read here:
Informations, history and facts about the theme "Cockades".

Kokarde cockade
  Cockade

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Maps

Position:

Source: CIA World Factbook


Source: CIA World Factbook

FRG and its countries, clickable map:

Source: Freeware, University of Texas Libraries, modyfied by: Volker Preuß

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Federal Countries

Baden-Wuerttemberg

Bavaria

Berlin

Brandenburg

Bremen

Hamburg

Hesse

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Lower Saxony

North-Rhine-Westfalen

Rhineland-Palatinate

Saar Land

Saxony

Saxony-Anhalt

Schleswig-Holstein

Thuringia

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Numbers and Facts

Area: 137 829 square miles

Inhabitants: 82.000.000 (1998), thereof 1.800.000 Turks, 652.000 Yugoslavians, 548.000 Italians, 294.000 Greek, 240.000 Polish, 150.000 Spanish, 60.000 Sorbs, 30.000 Danish, 30.000 Gipsies

Density of Population: 595 inh./sq.mi.

Religions: 37% Non-Religious, 30% Roman Catholic, 30% Protestant, 3% others

Capital: Berlin 3.400.000 inh.

official Language: German

other Languages: Turkish, Serbo-Croatian

Currency: 1 Euro = 100 Cent

Time Zone: GMT + 1 h

Source: Wikipedia (D)

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History

1200–1000 B.C. · Celtic settlement

600 B.C. · nascence of the Germanic culture

58 B.C.–455 A.D. · the territories left of Rhine River and south of the Danube River belong to the Roman Empire, to the provinces of Germania Superior, Germania Inferior and Raetia

395 · at the division of the Roman Empire the area of today's Germany comes to the Western Roman Empire

375 · Hun invasion, the beginning of the Great Transmigration (Hike of Nations), migration of the old Germanic tribes into the Roman Empire, moving up the Franks, Alemanni, Saxons, Bavarians and Thuringians, into central Germany, which is now deserted, migrate Slavs, this area is from now on called Germania Slavica

395 · onset of decline of the Western Roman Empire

476 · depose of the last Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus end of the (Western) Roman Empire

480–555 · the Merovingians become the rulers of all the Franks, formation of the Frankish Empire, subjugation of the Alemanni, Thuringians, Bavarians, Burgundians, conquest of Gaul to the Pyrenees and the Alps

751 · transfer of the power from the Merovingians to the Carolingians

768–814 · reign of Charlemagne, subjugation of the Saxons, enlargement of the Frankish Empire to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and today's Hungary , the sphere of influence extends to the east to the Oder River and the Carpathian Mountains

800 · Charlemagne is crowned as Emperor

818–888 · disputes under the successors of Charlemagne, repeatedly divisions of the Empire (Treaty of Wirten [Verdun] 843, Meersen 870, Wirten [Verdun] 879 and Ribemont 880)

888 · Final division of the empire in a West Frankish Kingdom (France) and an East Frankish Kingdom (Germany) and Italy

900 · in the East Frankish Kingdom forme out five tribal duchies (Saxony, Bavaria, Swabia, Franconia and Lorraine), the beginning of the eastward expansion into Germania Slavica between the rivers Saale/Elbe and the Oder/Neisse, to 1400 annex of Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Margraviate of Meissen, Silesia and Pomerania, the Teutonic Order conquers on behalf of the kings of Poland (East) Prussia, Pomerelles (West Prussia) and acquires the territories of today's Latvia and Estonia, confrontaions with the westward expansion of Poland

951 · the East Frankish King, Otto becomes king of the Lombards (Italy)

2nd of February 962 · the East Frankish King Otto I. is crowned as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (the empire includes the territories of today's Germany, Austria and Switzerland, Eastern France [Lorraine], the Netherlands, Eastern Belgium, Slovenia, Northern Italy and Bohemia) in the following centuries formes out none unified central governmented state (like France), but the reign of the Emperor must always hold back against the interests of the dukes, princes and cities, resulting of heritage divisions arise in the Holy Roman Empire up to 1.600 sovereign authorities and estates

987 · extinction of the Carolingians in the West Frankish Empire

1356 · Decree of the Golden Bull by Emperor Charles IV., the one constitutional document of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, setting of an electoral kingship by seven Electors (of Trier, Mainz, Cologne, the Palatinate, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bohemia), if the number of electors changed at times, the bull remained as valid to the end of the empire in 1806

1517 · Martin Luther spread his reforming protestant theses

1520–1530 · spread of the reformation

1618–1648 · Thirty Years' War in the German Reich as a confrontation between protestant and catholic contradictions and the influence of foreign powers (Sweden, France, Denmark), death of up to one quarter of the population, weakening of the power of the emperor

15th to 18th century · rise of Prussia as a great power in growing competition with the House of Habsburg (Austria)

1792, 1796, 1800 and 1805 · invasions of French revolutionary troops under Napoleon in the German Empire, the German Empire subjectes and becomes territorially transformed

1801 · all left-bank territories of the River Rhine ceded to France, and incorporated by this

1803 · German Mediatisation (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss), transformation of the territorial partition of the German Empire, ecclesiastical possessions become confiscated, old princely territories and free cities become confiscated or dissolved or annexed to old or new principalities, the number of sovereign authorities and estates of the empire is thus reduced from 300 to 60

1804 · the German Emperor Franz II. assumes the title of "Emperor of Austria", and is thus emperor of an empire within his empire

12th of July in 1806 · Napoleon forces the creation of the Rhine Confederation, an alliance of sixteen southern and southwestern German states under French protectorate

1st of August 1806 · the states of the Rhine Confederation declare themselves sovereign and resign from the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation

6th of August in 1806 · Emperor Franz II. lays down the crown of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation, the empire ends, remaining or subsequent structures are the Rhine Confederation, Prussia and Austria

1813–1815 · war of liberation against Napoleon (Napoleon's defeat at 16th ot 18th of October in 1813 near Leipzig)

1815 · Congress of Vienna, reconstruction of Europe after the era of Napoleon, the ownership and the administrative partitions in the former German Empire become restored, but not the sovereignty of the ecclesiastical countries, their possessions become transferred to old or new principalities, the 39 remaining German states become organized in a loose association, the German Confederation

1833/1834 · founding of the German Customs Union (de facto Germany without Austria) under the leadership of Prussia

1848 · civil revolution, election of the Frankfurt National Assembly

1849 · suppression of the May Revolt, restoration of the pre-revolutionary situation, many Germans leave Germany and emigrate mostly to the U.S.A.

1864 · German-Danish War, Denmark cedes Schleswig

1866 · Prussian-Austrian War, or German War or Fratricidal War, defeat of Austria and its allies against Prussia and its allies, Prussia acquires Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel and Nassau, smashing of the German Confederation and Prussia forces the establishment of the North German Confederation

1866 · establishment of the North German Confederation

1st of July in 1867 · the North German Confederation gets a constitution, it becomes a federal state under the leadership of Prussia, chancellor becomes Otto von Bismarck

1870/1871 · Franco-German War

18th of January in 1871 · proclamation of the German Empire at Versailles, the king of Prussia was proclaimed as German Emperor, the constitution of the North German Confederation becomes transmitted with a few changes to the German Empire, France cedes the Imperial Province of Alsace-Lorraine to the German Empire, chancellor becomes Otto von Bismarck

1884 · Berlin Congo Conference, the German Empire develops its own colonial policy, and purchases until 1899 colonial possessions (Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa, Kiaochow, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, Samoa, Nauru, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands and the Marshall Islands)

1890 · resignation of Chancellor Bismarck

1914–1918 · First World War, an alliance of the German Empire with Austria-Hungary presses the German Empire on the side of the Central Powers into the war, because of the by Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, after success and peace treaty on the eastern front, follows defeat is on the Western Front because of the intervention of the United States, in the German Empire arises the civic November Revolution, overthrow of the monarchy in the kingdom and in the federal states

9th of November in 1918 · proclamation of the Republic (also known as Weimar Republic, because the constitution was created in Weimar)

28th of June in 1919 · Dictate of Versailles, peace treaty between the German Empire and the Allies after the First World War, the German Empire is not involved in the negotiations and is – under the threat of occupation – forced to sign, the solely guilt on war of the German Empire becomes determined, the German Empire loses all its colonies and 27.000 sq.mi. of its territory, must disarm its army to 100.000 men, and suffer a 15 years enduring occupation of the River Rhine left-bank areas and pay gigantic reparations

1923–1925 · France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr Area

1929 · the global economic crisis and the results of the Versailles Dictate hit Germany hard, deterioration of the situation in the country, over the years escalation of the political situation, arise of extreme political left and right parties

1930 · governments of presidential cabinets of Imperial President Paul von Hindenburg rule by emergency decree, France withdrews from the Rhineland

30th of January in 1933 · Hitler's appointment to the Reichskanzler by the President of the Reich

24th of March in 1933 · The democratic parties in the Reichstag cede under the influence of extreme leftist actions and attacks the sovereignty of the parliament as the legislator to the government under the leadership of the National Socialists, the Weimar Constitution is suspended, the National Socialist rule becomes now dictatorial and installs a totalitarian national socialist one-party regime

1934 · the territorial structure of the countries in the German Empire becomes replaced by the districts of the Nazi Party, the countries become meaningless

1935 · plebiscite in the Saar Area, re-incorporation to the German Empire

1938 · annexation of Austria

1938 · annexation of the by an German majority populated Sudetenland

March 1939 · invasion of Czechia and establishment of the "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia", re-incorporation of the Memel Area

1st of September 1939 to 9th of May 1945 · Second World War, end with the total defeat of the German Empire

23rd of May in 1945 · the government of the German Empire is arrested

1945 · the German Empire becomes occupied and split in occupation zones by the four Allies, large areas in the east will be subjected to Polish and Russian administration, the German population there becomes murdered or expelled

1945–1949 · between the Allies, United States, Great Britain and France on the one hand, and the Soviet Union on the other hand, arise tensions, because the communist Soviet Union and the West also, want Germany to integrate into their respective political and economic systems, a peace treaty with the German Empire does not come into existence, because there are exist no more German authorities

1945–1947 · the countries of the German Empire become restructured by the Allies, partially abolished (eg. Prussia on 25th of February in 1947), there were sometimes created entirely new countries (eg. North Rhine-Westphalia)

23rd of May in 1949 · the countries under the control of the Western Allies set up the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)

7th of October 1949 · the countries under the control of the Soviet Union set up the German Democratic Republic (GDR)

1951 · Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, found the EEC (the later EU)

1952 · administrative reform in the GDR, the five countries will be abolished, initially become created 14 administrative districts

1961 · construction of the Berlin Wall, total isolation of the GDR against the FRG

5th of May in 1955 · the Allied Occupation Statute over the FRG ends, the country becomes partially sovereign

1957 · the FRG is a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC)

1973 · the FRG and the GDR are members of the UN

Summer 1989 · departure and mass exodus from the GDR

Autumn 1989 · mass demonstrations in GDR, first for democratization, and later for the reunification of Germany

9th of November 1989 · fall of the Berlin Wall

1st of July in 1990 · monetary, economic and social union of the GDR and the FRG

3rd of October 1990 · annexation of the GDR to the FRG, in the former GDR the five countries become re-established

15th of March 1991 · come into force of the Two-Plus-Four Treaty, the former allies sede their jurisdiction

20th of June 1991 · the capital of the FRG becomes Berlin, the seat of government moves from Bonn to Berlin

1992 · treaty of Maastricht, the twelve countries of the EEC sign the "Treaty of the European Union (EU)"

1999 · German combat troops are the first time active abroad (Serbia) again

2002 · the FRG joins the Euro-zone (monetary union of states in the EU)

29th of June 2012 · the democratic parties of the parliament of the FRG cede under the influence of monetary problems of the Euro-zone, the sovereignty of the Parliament as the legislator in economic and financial questions to a 'Board of Governors' in Brussels

Source: Wikipedia (D), Atlas zur Geschichte, Discovery '97, Volker Preuß

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Origin of the Country's Name

Germany is the land of the Germans. The Germans themselves are not a growed nation in the usual sense, but originally an alliance of Germanic tribes. The Gemans call themselves "Deutsche". The word "Deutsche" comes from the ancient word "teudisk", what translated means "belonging to the tribe." It was used by the tribes which have spoken the "Theodisk" language, which goes back to the tribe of the Teutons. In 843 the Teutons were first called as "Teutisci". Over the yearhundreds "teudisk" became to "tiutsch" and later "deutsch". Neighboring nations or tribes, who were not "teudisk" took over the word for the Germans. In this way the Italians say: "Tedeschi", the Germanic Scandinavians: "Tysk" the Dutchman: "Duitse". Others simply called the "teudisk" as Germans, even if they were Germanic themselves, so the English: "Germans", but other nations acted in the same way, e.g. the Greeks: "Germanoi", or the Romanians: "Germani". Other neighbors took over the name of the tribe, with whom they had to do on their border, over all the tribes of the land, so the Frenchman: "Allemand," which goes back to the tribe of the Alemanni. This is internationally widespread. The Finns, call the Germans "Saksa," which goes back to the tribe of the Saxons. The Russians call Germany "Germania", but the inhabitants and their language they call "Nemjetski", which can be translated with "the dumb" because the Germans in Russia was once forbidden to speak their own language. Even this "Nemjetski" became widespread, so in all Slavic languages and as well as in the Hungarian language as "Nemat".

Source: Handbuch der geographischen Namen, Volker Preuß

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The German national anthem

click or tap here

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Kindly supported by: A. Kortmann (D) und Königreich Hannover